Manufacturing the gene chip, Stephen Fodor
Interviewee: Stephen Fodor. Stephen Fodor talks about manufacturing the gene chip.
The thing that makes this place so special and that makes the manufacturing process so simple is that we really use basically four ingredients, we use the A, the C, the G and the T. And we can put those together in different ways in order to build diversity or different DNA strands. Now of course nature does this in the genome itself, the genome is some three billion base pairs long, however it's simply combinations of those four bases, A, C, G and T. And here is probably, you know, well no doubt is the world's largest assembly plant of DNA molecules in terms of how many different molecules are built and the complexity. We take these four ingredients, we take a piece of glass, it comes in through the factory door and gets set up on the instrumentation. Now at the same time what happens if, if we have a reference database, such as the human genome, we can decompose pieces of that genome into the segments that we want to study on the chip. So we have a big computer file that has the human genome in it, and we say we want to ask six million questions about different parts of that human genome. So in a computer you actually identify which of those sections you are, that computer file is then used in the manufacturing process with these four ingredients, in order to build these DNA chips.
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Stephen Fodor talks about the photolithographic technique used to synthesize pieces of DNA on the surface of GeneChipsÂ®.
Stephen Fodor talks about limit to the gene chip.
Stephen Fodor talks about bringing the knowledge gathered by the Human Genome Project to the individual researcher.
Stephen Fodor continues his discussion of the experiments that laid the groundwork for GeneChip technology.
Stephen Fodor talks about understanding genes and health.
In the early 1990s, Stephen Fodor and his team developed a technique to produce miniature arrays of biological molecules
Stephen Fodor personalized medicine.
Stephen Fodor discusses the experiments that laid the groundwork for GeneChip technology.
DNA microarrays provide the means to analyze patterns of gene expression at different timepoints in a living cell.
Igor Dawid and Thomas Sargent explain how they developed subtractive mRNA hybrization to find genes expressed by different cell types. Pat Brown and Steve Fodor show how genomes can be screened with DNA arrays and GeneChips™