High School Field Trips

In 1988 the DNALC began offering DNA manipulation labs to high school students during the academic year. Lab field trips on DNA restriction and transformation supported the rapid implementation of these experiments in AP Biology classes on Long Island. The DNALC has also helped teachers implement PCR-based experiments to examine human DNA polymorphisms.

Bacterial Transformation

The bacterial transformation experiment illustrates the direct link between an organism's genetic complement (genotype) and its observable characteristics (phenotype). Two genes, for antibiotic resistance and luminescence, are introduced into the bacterium E. coli. Following overnight incubation, transformed bacteria are compared to non-transformed bacteria for their ability to grow in the presence of ampicillin and glow when exposed to ultraviolet light.

The kit for this lab is only available to teachers who are able to pick up the kit at the Dolan DNALC in Cold Spring Harbor, NY 1-2 days prior to instruction.

Information:

  • 1 starter plate of E.coli strain mm294 OR tube of competent mm294 cells in CaCl2
  • 2 plastic loops (if using starter plate)
  • 2 tubes of 250 µL CaCl2 (if using starter plate)
  • 1 tube of 10 µL pGFP plasmid
  • 2 plastic droppers
  • 2 Petri dishes with LB agar
  • 2 Petri dishes with LB/Amp agar
  • 2 tubes of 250 µL LB
  • 4 tubes of sterile glass beads
Not provided:
  • cup of hot water
  • cup of ice
  • Tape
  • permanent marker
  • kitchen thermometer (not required)
  • black light (not required)

DNA Restriction Analysis

The DNA restriction analysis experiment demonstrates that DNA can be precisely manipulated and that it behaves as predicted by the Watson-Crick structure. In this lab, restriction enzymes—the scissors of molecular biology—are used to digest DNA from the bacteriophage lambda. Agarose gel electrophoresis will allow for visualization of the results.

Students will:

  • learn how to set up a controlled experiment;
  • explore how restriction enzymes are used in biotechnology and molecular biology;
  • observe how agarose gel electrophoresis is used to separate DNA molecules by size; and
  • view and interpret electrophoresis results to identify a mystery restriction enzyme.

 

Human DNA Fingerprinting*

This lab examines a DNA sequence from chromosome 16 to determine if the insertion of a short nucleotide sequence called Alu is present within a noncoding region of the chromosome. Students will identify the presence or absence of Alu in their own DNA. Class data are then used as part of an exploration of allele frequencies and population genetics.

*Participation in this laboratory requires a signed consent form (provided by the DNALC) from the parent/guardian of each student under 18 years of age.

Live Hands-on Lab

Session I (2 hours): Students prepare a sample of their own DNA from cells obtained by saline mouthwash, and are introduced to transposons—specifically Alu elements—and how they can “jump” within the genome. Teacher will batch student samples and return to the DNALC for processing.

Session II (2 hours): DNALC staff show how the automated technique of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used to amplify polymorphic DNA fragments and confirm amplification through agarose gel electrophoresis. Students learn how to interpret electrophoresis results, and use class data to calculate allele frequencies, and online tools to simulate principles of population genetics.

On-Demand Lab

Part I (1 hour): Students prepare a sample of their own DNA from cells obtained by saline mouthwash. Teacher will batch student samples and return to the DNALC for processing.

Part II (1 hour): DNALC staff show how the automated technique of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used to amplify polymorphic DNA fragments and confirm amplification through agarose gel electrophoresis. Students learn how to interpret electrophoresis results.

Part III (1 hour): Students will use real population data to study Alu variation in alleles, calculate allele frequencies, and examine Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in populations. Computer simulations will be used to model genetic drift.

Teachers will receive class data two weeks after student samples from Part I are received at the DNALC. You may watch Part II during this two-week break or wait until the results are returned to proceed.

Information:

  • disposable nitrile gloves
  • protective eyewear
  • tube of 10% Chelex solution
  • syringe (1 ml)
  • 1000 µL wrapped pipette tip
  • empty tube(s) for sample preparation
  • aluminum foil
Not provided in kit (from home):
  • water bath or mug/other container for hot water
  • boiling/near boiling water
  • 8 oz bottled or filtered water
  • table salt (1/4 teaspoon)
  • unused paper or plastic drinking cup
  • permanent marker

Bioinformatics: Using Alu Insertions to Study Population Genetics

Students will learn about Alu insertions (segments of DNA that “jump” around in the genome) and use real population data to study variation in alleles, calculate allele frequencies, and examine Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in populations. Computer simulations will be used to model genetic drift.

 

  • Lab time: 2 hours
  • Grades: 10 and above
  • Available: Virtual Live (no kit, requires student computers with Internet access)

Human Mitochondrial Sequencing*

Comparison of the control region within the human mitochondrial genome reveals that most people have a unique pattern of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). These sequence differences, in turn, are the basis for far-ranging investigations on human DNA diversity and the evolution of hominids. In this lab, students analyze a section of their own mitochondrial control region and learn the theories behind how modern humans evolved.

*Participation in this laboratory requires a signed consent form (provided by the DNALC) from the parent/guardian of each student under 18 years of age.

Live Hands-on Lab

Session I (2 hours): Students prepare a sample of their own DNA from cells obtained by saline mouthwash and learn how it can be used to explore genetic polymorphisms, human origins and migration. Teacher will batch student samples and return to the DNALC for processing.

Session II (2 hours):DNALC staff show how the automated technique of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used to amplify a small region of the mitochondrial DNA and confirm amplification through agarose gel electrophoresis. Students learn how to use DNALC-developed online bioinformatics tools to compare DNA sequences and use them to explore human origins.

On-Demand Lab

Part I (1 hour): Students prepare a sample of their own DNA from cells obtained by saline mouthwash and learn how it can be used to explore genetic polymorphisms, human origins and migration. Teacher will batch student samples and return to the DNALC for processing.

Part II (1 hour): DNALC staff show how the automated technique of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used to amplify a small region of the mitochondrial DNA and confirm amplification through agarose gel electrophoresis. Amplified PCR products are sent to the DNA sequencing facility GENEWIZ and the procedure to obtain the DNA sequence data is discussed.

Part III (1 hour): Students learn how to use DNALC developed online bioinformatics tools to compare DNA sequences and use them to explore human origins.

Teachers will receive class data approximately two weeks after student samples from Part I are received at the DNALC. You may watch Parts II and III during this two-week period and proceed with the example dataset, or wait until the data is returned to proceed with Part III.

Information:

  • disposable nitrile gloves
  • protective eyewear
  • tube of 10% Chelex solution
  • syringe (1 ml)
  • 1000 µLwrapped pipette tip
  • empty tube(s) for sample preparation
  • aluminum foil
Not provided:
  • water bath or mug/other container for hot water
  • boiling/near boiling water
  • 8 oz bottled or filtered water
  • table salt (1/4 teaspoon)
  • unused paper or plastic drinking cup
  • permanent marker

Bioinformatics: Tracing Human Evolution

Students will analyze mitochondrial sequence data to test models of human evolution. Were Neanderthals direct ancestors of modern humans? Did we all arise from a single founding population in Africa? Students will be guided through BioServers and DNA Subway to help answer these questions and more!

 

  • Lab time: 2 hours
  • Grades: 10 and above
  • Available: Virtual Live (no kit, requires student computers with Internet access)

Forensic DNA Profiling*

This lab examines a highly variable tandem repeat polymorphism on chromosome 1 called D1S80, similar to what the FBI uses to create a genetic profile. After amplification by PCR, the improved size resolution of a DNA chip allows students to identify their genotype, something impossible with traditional agarose gel electrophoresis.

*Participation in this laboratory requires a signed consent form (provided by the DNALC) from the parent/guardian of each student under 18 years of age.

Live Hands-on Lab

Session I (2 hours): Students prepare a sample of their own DNA from cells obtained by saline mouthwash. Class will explore the concept of genetic profiling and learn how tandem repeats are used to create a profile. Teacher will batch student samples and return to the DNALC for processing.

Session II (2 hours): DNALC staff show how the automated technique of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used to amplify polymorphic DNA fragments and then load the PCR samples into a traditional agarose gel and DNA chip Bioanalyzer. Students compare results from both methods and students learn how to interpret the obtained genotypes.

On-Demand Lab

Part I (1 hour): Students prepare a sample of their own DNA from cells obtained by saline mouthwash. Class will explore the concept of genetic profiling and learn how tandem repeats are used to create a profile. Teacher will batch student samples and return them to the DNALC for processing.

Part II (1 hour): DNALC staff show how the automated technique of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used to amplify polymorphic DNA fragments and then load the PCR samples into an agarose gel for analysis.

Part III (1 hour): DNALC staff will load the PCR samples into a DNA chip Bioanalyzer. Results are compared to traditional agarose gel electrophoresis methods and students learn how to interpret the obtained genotypes.

Teachers will receive class data two weeks after student samples from Part I are received at the DNALC. You may watch Part II during this two-week break, or wait until the results are returned to proceed.

Information:

  • disposable nitrile gloves
  • protective eyewear
  • tube of 10% Chelex solution
  • syringe (1 ml)
  • 1000 µLwrapped pipette tip
  • empty tube(s) for sample preparation
  • aluminum foil
Not provided:
  • water bath or mug/other container for hot water
  • boiling/near boiling water
  • 8 oz bottled or filtered water
  • table salt (1/4 teaspoon)
  • unused paper or plastic drinking cup
  • permanent marker

Advanced Inquiry Labs

GMO: Detecting Genetically Modified Foods

Genes that encode herbicide resistance, insect resistance, drought tolerance, frost tolerance, and other traits have been added to many commercial plants—including most of the corn and soybeans grown in the United States. In this lab, students isolate DNA from common foods and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and agarose gel electrophoresis are used to identify the presence or absence of transgenes.

Live Hands-on Lab

Session I (2 hours): Students isolate DNA from processed food products and learn more about the promoter that drives the expression of most plant transgenes. Teacher will batch student samples and return to the DNALC for processing.

Session II (2 hours): DNALC staff show how the automated technique of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used to amplify transgene promoters and confirm amplification through agarose gel electrophoresis. The National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) is used to analyze primer sequence and calculate the expected amplicon size.

On-Demand Lab

Part I (1 hour): Students isolate DNA from processed food products and learn more about the promoter that drives the expression of most plant transgenes. Teacher will batch student samples and return to the DNALC for processing.

Part II (1 hour): DNALC staff show how the automated technique of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used to amplify transgene promoters and confirm amplification through agarose gel electrophoresis. The National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) is used to analyze primer sequence and calculate the expected amplicon size.

Teachers will receive class results approximately two weeks after student samples from Part I are received at the DNALC. You may watch Part II during this two-week period, or wait until the result is returned to proceed with Part II.

Information:

  • disposable nitrile gloves
  • protective eyewear
  • tube of 10% Chelex solution
  • plastic pestle
  • aluminum foil
Not provided in kit (from home):
  • snack sample
  • water bath or mug/other container for hot water
  • boiling/near boiling water
  • permanent marker

PTC: Using a SNP to Predict Bitter Tasting Ability*

The ability to taste the bitter compound PTC (phenylthiocarbamide) is often used to illustrate Mendelian inheritance. Three SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) in the gene encoding the PTC taste receptor strongly affect tasting ability. In this lab, PCR is used on student DNA samples to amplify one taste receptor SNP. Students test their tasting ability and compare genotypes and phenotypes, allowing them to discover that PTC tasting is genetically more complex than the original model. This experiment is a close analog to how "precision or personalized medicine" uses genotypes to predict drug response.

*Participation in this laboratory requires a signed consent form (provided by the DNALC) from the parent/guardian of each student under 18 years of age.

Live Hands-on Lab

Session I (2 hours):  Students prepare a sample of their own DNA from cells obtained by saline mouthwash. Class will be introduced to the genetics behind taste, and the National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST), which is used to analyze primer sequence and calculate the expected amplicon size that will be produced for session II.  Teacher will batch student samples and return to the DNALC for processing.

Session II (2 hours):  DNALC staff show how the automated technique of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used to amplify a short region of the gene. After a diagnostic restriction digest, student genotypes are scored through agarose gel electrophoresis, allowing them to predict their phenotypes. Phenotypes are confirmed with a PTC taste test.

On-Demand Lab

Part I (1 hour):  Students prepare a sample of their own DNA from cells obtained by saline mouthwash. Class will be introduced to the genetics behind taste. Teacher will batch student samples and return to the DNALC for processing.

Part II (1 hour):  DNALC staff demonstrate how the automated technique of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used to amplify a short region of the gene. After PCR, a diagnostic restriction digest is set up for student samples.

Part III (1 hour):  Students will be introduced to the National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST), which is used to analyze primer sequence and calculate the expected amplicon size that will be observed through gel electrophoresis.  Student genotypes are scored through agarose gel electrophoresis, allowing them to predict their phenotypes. Phenotypes are tested with a PTC taste test, and compared to student genotypes.

Teachers will receive class data two weeks after student samples from Part I are received at the DNALC. You may watch Part II during this two-week break or wait until the results are returned to proceed.

Information:

  • disposable nitrile gloves
  • protective eyewear
  • tube of 10% Chelex solution
  • syringe (1 ml)
  • 1000 µL wrapped pipette tip
  • empty tube(s) for sample preparation
  • aluminum foil
  • PTC paper strip
Not provided in kit (from home):
  • water bath or mug/other container for hot water
  • boiling/near boiling water
  • 8 oz bottled or filtered water
  • table salt (1/4 teaspoon)
  • unused paper or plastic drinking cup

Barcoding: Using DNA Barcodes to Identify and Classify Living Things

This lab examines how DNA can be used for conservation efforts and consumer interest issues. Just as a unique universal product code (UPC) identifies a product, unique "DNA barcodes" use specific DNA sequences to identify and determine evolutionary relatedness of living things. Students analyze DNA sequence data obtained from different organisms to determine the species and gain insight into their local habitats.

Live Hands-on Lab

Session I (2 hours): Students extract DNA from plant or invertebrate samples and learn how DNA barcoding is used to tackle global concerns like environmental monitoring and food safety. Teacher will batch student samples and return to the DNALC for processing.

Session II (2 hours): DNALC staff show how the automated technique of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used to amplify the short barcode region and confirm amplification through agarose gel electrophoresis. The online bioinformatics site DNA Subway is used to search a DNA database for close matches to the student sample sequences for species identification, and to construct phylogenetic trees that show evolutionary relationships.

On-Demand Lab

Part I (1 hour): Students extract DNA from plant or invertebrate samples and learn how DNA barcoding is used to tackle global concerns like environmental monitoring and food safety. Teacher will batch student samples and return to the DNALC.

Part II (1 hour): DNALC staff show how the automated technique of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used to amplify the short barcode region and confirm amplification through agarose gel electrophoresis. Amplified PCR products are sent to the DNA sequencing facility GENEWIZ and the procedure to obtain unique DNA barcode sequence data is discussed.

Part III (1 hour): The online bioinformatics site DNA Subway is used to search a DNA database for close matches to the student sample sequences for species identification, and to construct phylogenetic trees that show evolutionary relationships.

Teachers will receive class data approximately two weeks after student samples from Part I are received at the DNALC. You may watch Parts II and III during this two-week period and proceed with the example dataset, or wait until the data is returned to proceed with Part III.

Information:

  • disposable nitrile gloves
  • protective eyewear
  • tube of 10% Chelex solution
  • 100 µL pipette tip(s)
  • tube of Whatman No. 1 chromatography discs
  • tube of ethanol
  • tweezer
  • toothpicks
  • plastic pestle
  • weigh boat
  • 4x4 inch square(s) of aluminum foil
Not provided in kit (from home):
  • water bath or mug/other container for hot water
  • boiling/near boiling water
  • plant or recently expired invertebrate sample
  • permanent marker

Bioinformatics: Barcoding & Phylogenetics

Phylogenetics is the practice of determining the evolutionary relatedness of groups of organisms. Much of this work is done utilizing DNA data. In this lab activity, students will learn about different methods of building phylogenetic trees and practice building them using both morphological and genetic data. Students will use sample data on the bioinformatics platform DNA Subway to compare species and build phylogenetic trees.

 

  • Lab time: 2 hours
  • Grades: 11 and above
  • Available: Virtual Live (no kit, requires student computers with Internet access)