DNA sequencing, Leroy Hood
Interviewee: Leroy Hood. Leroy Hood talks about DNA sequencing.
Well the major reason DNA lends itself to it, much better than proteins, is the alphabet of DNA is just four different letters. And as Mike suggested, we were interested in using fluorescent methods for color-coding each of the four letters and being able to essentially read their order out in these long strings. And we knew that there were at least four different fluorescent dyes that had distinct spectra that could be detected. So this was a mechanism and a capacity that was well within the kind of technical means that we had in hand. And the idea that you could color-code the entire four-letter digital human genome and read it out was a very exciting one.
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Leroy Hood explains the process of sequencing using an automated sequencing machines.
Leroy Hood talks about audacious idea of sequencing the human genome.
The sequencing method developed by Fred Sanger forms the basis of automated "cycle" sequencing reactions today. Fluorescent dyes are added to the reactions, and a laser within an automated DNA sequencing machine is used to analyze the DNA fragments produc
Frederick Sanger, Michael Hunkapiller, and Leroy Hood.
A single nucleotide polymorphism, or SNP, occurs when two individuals in the population differ by a single letter in the DNA sequence.
DNA and protein are candidates for transmitting hereditary information.
Techniques to read the sequence of DNA, letter by letter, have been available since the 1970s. However, the massive task of sequencing the three billion basepairs of the human genome required machines that could read and interpret the data.
Explore tetranucleotide combinations.
Craig Venter, the leader of the private genome effort, talks about the "whole genome shotgun" technique that was used by Celera Genomics to sequence the human genome.