Determining the nucleotide sequences of all RNA codons, Marshall Nirenberg
Interviewee: Marshall Nirenberg. Marshall Nirenberg talks about Gobind Khorana, who synthesized many of the triplets needed to finish the decoding process. (DNAi Location: Code > Reading the code > Players > Har Gobind Khorana >Finishing the code)
Gobind Khorana is, was at that time the, one of the world's best organic chemists working in the field of nucleic acids, highly experienced and superbly equipped to do this. He synthesized the 64 triplets chemically and he also synthesized repeating polymers with known doublets, repeating doublets or triplets as well, and towards the end he used them all to determine nucleotide sequences also. So between the two labs, he used the ribosome binding assay that we had established and between the two labs we determined all of the nucleotide sequences of RNA codons.
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Har Gobind Khorana, Marshall Nirenberg, and Robert Holley shared the 1968 Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine. Nirenberg and Khorana cracked the genetic code. Holley sequenced and deduced the structure of the first tRNA molecule.
Marshall Nirenberg, Har Gobind Khorana, and Robert Holley shared the 1968 Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine. Nirenberg and Khorana cracked the genetic code. Holley sequenced and deduced the structure of the first tRNA molecule.
After decoding the "easy" codons, Marshall Nirenberg talks about his strategy for decoding the rest.
Marshall Nirenberg talks about the RNA code for phenylalanine.
Several researchers crack the genetic code.
After the easy codons, exact triplets had to be made in order to finish deciphering the rest. Marshall Nirenberg and a group of scientists including Maxine Singer, Marianne Grunberg-Manago, Phil Leder were involved in this process. Har Gobind Khorana al
Marshall Nirenberg talks about the contributions of Maxine Singer, Marianne Grunberg-Monago and Phil Leder.
Marshall Nirenberg talks about origin of the RNA code.
Having made phenylalanine using poly-U mRNA, Marshall Nirenberg still had to prove it. He talks about how he did this with help from a fellow scientist â Michael Siler.
Marshall Nirenberg and Heinrich Matthaei used poly-U mRNA in a cell-free system to make a polyphenylalanine protein chain. This showed that UUU must be the code that specifies the amino acid phenylalanine.