Making triplet codons, Marshall Nirenberg
Interviewee: Marshall Nirenberg. Marshall Nirenberg talks about the contributions of Maxine Singer, Marianne Grunberg-Monago and Phil Leder. (DNAi Location: Code > Reading the code > Players > Marshall Nirenberg & collaborators > Making the triplets)
Maxine Singer, here at the NIH and, and Marianne Grunberg-Monago who was visiting her lab from France, who had discovered the enzyme, worked with Phil Leder in my lab to devise conditions where they could add to a doublet, to a known doublet, they could add one or a few bases at a time to the three prime end of the, of the oligonucleotide.
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After the easy codons, exact triplets had to be made in order to finish deciphering the rest. Marshall Nirenberg and a group of scientists including Maxine Singer, Marianne Grunberg-Manago, Phil Leder were involved in this process. Har Gobind Khorana al
Marshall Nirenberg, National Institute of Health, 1960.
Marshall Nirenberg talks about Gobind Khorana, who synthesized many of the triplets needed to finish the decoding process.
After decoding the "easy" codons, Marshall Nirenberg talks about his strategy for decoding the rest.
Marshall Nirenberg talks about the RNA code for phenylalanine.
Several researchers crack the genetic code.
George Gamow was a physicist who became interested in biology after reading Watson and Crick's 1953 paper on DNA structure. Marshall Nirenberg talks about Gamow's theories on the code.
Marshall Nirenberg and Heinrich Matthaei used poly-U mRNA in a cell-free system to make a polyphenylalanine protein chain. This showed that UUU must be the code that specifies the amino acid phenylalanine.
Early in his scientific career, Marshall Nirenberg had to decide what project to pursue. Marshall Nirenberg talks about his decision to become a "code-breaker."
Marshall Nirenberg, Har Gobind Khorana, and Robert Holley shared the 1968 Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine. Nirenberg and Khorana cracked the genetic code. Holley sequenced and deduced the structure of the first tRNA molecule.