Breaking the code
Marshall Nirenberg and Heinrich Matthaei used poly-U mRNA in a cell-free system to make a polyphenylalanine protein chain. This showed that UUU must be the code that specifies the amino acid phenylalanine.
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- ID: 15882
- Source: DNALC.DNAi
Several researchers crack the genetic code.
Marshall Nirenberg talks about the RNA code for phenylalanine.
Paul Zamecnik first developed the cell-free extract system, which Marshall Nirenberg adapted to decipher the genetic code. Paul Zamecnik and Mahlon Hoagland also isolated activated tRNA, the "adaptor" that shuttled amino acids to ribsomes for incorporati
After decoding the "easy" codons, Marshall Nirenberg talks about his strategy for decoding the rest.
Marshall Nirenberg talks about RNA can stimulate protein synthesis.
Marshall Nirenberg talks about cell-free protein synthesis.
Marshall Nirenberg, Har Gobind Khorana, and Robert Holley shared the 1968 Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine. Nirenberg and Khorana cracked the genetic code. Holley sequenced and deduced the structure of the first tRNA molecule.
The Central Dogma is the flow of genetic information from DNA, to RNA, to protein.
George Gamow was a physicist who became interested in biology after reading Watson and Crick's 1953 paper on DNA structure. Marshall Nirenberg talks about Gamow's theories on the code.
Paul Zamecnik developed a cell-free extract that he and Mahlon Hoagland used to study protein synthesis. They identified tRNA as the adaptor predicted by Francis Crick in his Central Dogma