Cell-free protein synthesis, Marshall Nirenberg
Interviewee: Marshall Nirenberg. Marshall Nirenberg talks about cell-free protein synthesis.
And so I needed a more sensitive assay, and that is a radio... incorporation of radioactive amino acids into protein. After about a year and a half of doing this, and testing them, testing the nucleic acid preparations in different ways, and by the by, I modelled the system after a system that had been described by Zamecnik and Lamborg actually, who had been studying, Zamecnik had been studying for years cell-free protein synthesis and had gotten some amino acid incorporation, albeit low amounts of amino acid incorporation into protein.
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Marshall Nirenberg and Heinrich Matthaei used poly-U mRNA in a cell-free system to make a polyphenylalanine protein chain. This showed that UUU must be the code that specifies the amino acid phenylalanine.
Marshall Nirenberg talks about the RNA code for phenylalanine.
After decoding the "easy" codons, Marshall Nirenberg talks about his strategy for decoding the rest.
Paul Zamecnik first developed the cell-free extract system, which Marshall Nirenberg adapted to decipher the genetic code. Paul Zamecnik and Mahlon Hoagland also isolated activated tRNA, the "adaptor" that shuttled amino acids to ribsomes for incorporati
Marshall Nirenberg talks about RNA can stimulate protein synthesis.
George Gamow was a physicist who became interested in biology after reading Watson and Crick's 1953 paper on DNA structure. Marshall Nirenberg talks about Gamow's theories on the code.
Marshall Nirenberg talks about origin of the RNA code.
Marshall Nirenberg talks about Gobind Khorana, who synthesized many of the triplets needed to finish the decoding process.
Several researchers crack the genetic code.
Marshall Nirenberg talks about the contributions of Maxine Singer, Marianne Grunberg-Monago and Phil Leder.