Biography 22: Marshall Warren Nirenberg (1927- )
Marshall Nirenberg was born in New York City. When he was 12, he and his family moved to Orlando, Florida. His early interest in bird-watching led him to the science of biology. Nirenberg was able to explore the diverse ecology of Florida's wetlands. He also benefited from the instruction provided by professionals - museum curators, biochemists - who were at nearby World War II training camps.
In 1948, Nirenberg graduated from the University of Florida with a Bachelor of Science degree. He stayed at the University of Florida to complete a Master's degree in Zoology on the ecology and taxonomy of caddis flies.
Nirenberg then went to the University of Michigan and in 1957 finished his Ph.D. He had become more interested in the question of life itself and wanted to know the essence. His Ph.D. work on sugar transport in tumor cells reflected his interest in the chemistry of life.
After his Ph.D., Nirenberg went to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for a 2-year postdoctoral fellowship at the American Cancer Society. In 1960, he accepted the position of research biochemist in the Section of Metabolic Enzymes at the NIH. Nirenberg had already begun working on the problem of how to decipher the RNA code.
In 1961, Nirenberg and J. H. Matthaei published their landmark paper in Proceedings of the National Academy of Science. They showed that a synthetic messenger RNA made of only uracils can direct protein synthesis. The polyU mRNA resulted in a poly-phenylalanine protein ? they had the first piece of the genetic code.
In subsequent years, Nirenberg and his group deciphered the entire genetic code by matching amino acids to synthetic triplet nucleotides. They found that there is redundancy in that some amino acids are encoded by more than one codon and some codons are "punctuation marks" in the mRNA message. Nirenberg and his group also showed that with few exceptions, the genetic code was universal to all life on earth. Nirenberg shared the 1968 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Har Gobind Khorana and Robert Holley. Khorana also worked on cracking the genetic code; Holley was the first to sequence a tRNA and determine its structure.
Nirenberg's research now focuses on the development of the nervous system of Drosophila melanogaster. He runs a lab in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the NIH. He is still passionate about research ? the joy of discovery and the wonder of Nature's plan.
Marshall Nirenberg, Har Gobind Khorana, and Robert Holley shared the 1968 Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine. Nirenberg and Khorana cracked the genetic code. Holley sequenced and deduced the structure of the first tRNA molecule.
har gobind khorana, marshall nirenberg, trna molecule, protein synthesis, messenger rna, chemistry of life, tumor cells
- ID: 16511
- Source: DNALC.DNAFTB
16512. Biography 22: Har Gobind Khorana (1922 - )
Har Gobind Khorana, Marshall Nirenberg, and Robert Holley shared the 1968 Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine. Nirenberg and Khorana cracked the genetic code. Holley sequenced and deduced the structure of the first tRNA molecule.
15356. Determining the nucleotide sequences of all RNA codons, Marshall Nirenberg
Marshall Nirenberg talks about Gobind Khorana, who synthesized many of the triplets needed to finish the decoding process.
16494. Animation 22: DNA words are three letters long.
Several researchers crack the genetic code.
15883. The other codons: Nirenberg and the genetic code
After the easy codons, exact triplets had to be made in order to finish deciphering the rest. Marshall Nirenberg and a group of scientists including Maxine Singer, Marianne Grunberg-Manago, Phil Leder were involved in this process. Har Gobind Khorana al
15695. Har Gobind Khorana
Har Gobind Khorana, University of Wisconscin.
16499. Gallery 22: Har Gobind Khorana, Francis Crick, Marianne Grunberg-Manago, 1966
1966 Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on protein synthesis. (L-R) Har Gobind Khorana, Francis Crick, Marianne Grunberg-Manago.
15349. RNA can stimulate protein synthesis, Marshall Nirenberg
Marshall Nirenberg talks about RNA can stimulate protein synthesis.
16489. Biography 21: Paul Charles Zamecnik (1913-2009)
Paul Zamecnik developed a cell-free extract that he and Mahlon Hoagland used to study protein synthesis. They identified tRNA as the adaptor predicted by Francis Crick in his Central Dogma
15885. Cell-free extracts
Paul Zamecnik first developed the cell-free extract system, which Marshall Nirenberg adapted to decipher the genetic code. Paul Zamecnik and Mahlon Hoagland also isolated activated tRNA, the "adaptor" that shuttled amino acids to ribsomes for incorporati
16504. Video 22: Marshall Nirenberg, clip 1
Explaining the experiment to determine the RNA able to direct the synthesis of proteins.