Bipolar Disorder Candidate Genes
While many genes and loci have subsequently been found to associate with bipolar disorder, none have been unambiguously identified as causal.
We know from family and twin studies that bipolar is a highly genetic disorder. A study of 11,288 same-sex twin pairs in Denmark by Bertelsen and colleagues (1977) found that approximately 58% of monozygotic (identical) twins were concordant for bipolar disorder, as compared with 17% of dizygotic (fraternal) twins. While many genes and loci have subsequently been found to associate with bipolar disorder, none have been unambiguously identified as causal. One explanation for the difficulty in finding genes for bipolar is that it is a highly complex disorder. Genes with the strongest association are also candidate genes for schizophrenia (in particular), as well as major depression. This is not surprising given that the disorders share some common symptoms. For example, psychosis is a feature of both bipolar and schizophrenia (although the delusions and hallucination in schizophrenia seem to be related to self-awareness as opposed to mood-incongruence). Candidate genes for bipolar disorder include G72/DAOA, DISC1, NRG1, TPH2, BDNF, 5-HTT, and DAT1.
bipolar, candidate, gene, G72, DAOA, DISC1, NRG1, TPH2, BDNF, 5-HTT, DAT1, slc6a4, slc6a3,
- ID: 1484
- Source: DNALC.G2C
An interactive chromosome map of the genes and loci associated with cognitive processes and disorders.
An overview of bipolar disorder-related content on Genes to Cognition Online.
The dopamine transporter gene (DAT1/SLC6A3) is a membrane-spanning protein that mediates the reuptake of dopamine from the synapse. It has been associated with bipolar disorder and ADHD.
Polymorphisms of DAOA are associated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder risk.
The 5-HTT gene has been associated with both depression and autism.
The search for candidate genes for depression is complicated by complex gene-environment interactions and the fact that the disorder takes many different forms.
An interactive chromosome map of the genes and loci associated with schizophrenia.
Because serotonin is critical to so many processes in the central nervous system, genes involved in its synthesis are interesting to neuroscientists.
Increased neuregulin signaling in schizophrenia may suppress the NMDA receptor, leading to lowered glutamate levels.
Disrupted in Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) is a candidate gene for schizophrenia.