Genotyping with Microarray Technologies
Doctor Anil Malhotra discusses new technologies that allow scientists to genotype large numbers of genetic polymorphisms.
There are new [microarray] technologies now available that allow us to genotype massive numbers of polymorphisms or variations within the genome at any one time. Previously, we have been limited to looking at individual genes or a limited number of polymorphisms, but these new techniques allow us to genotype [over] five hundred thousand, up to a million SNPs or polymorphisms at a single time and thus we can essentially conduct a snapshot of an entire genome at a single timepoint.
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Special techniques are used for screening each individual’s genome for millions of different SNPs. This kind of comparison is referred to as a genome-wide association study.
Doctor Anil Malhotra discusses the search for genes in both bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, both of which are in their infancy.
Doctor Anil Malhotra discusses that because whole genome microarray studies examine so much genetic data, the daners of false-positive results are very real.
Mark Skolnick talks about using RFLPs or SNPs to study patterns in families
Doctor Anil Malhotra discusses the problem of deciding what meets the criteria for statistical significance for microarray studies.
Jonathan Sebat, a researcher at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, discusses how association studies are used to determine the causes of genetic disorders.
A single nucleotide polymorphism, or SNP, occurs when two individuals in the population differ by a single letter in the DNA sequence.
Doctor Anil Malhotra compares (older) linkage and (more modern) association techniques for identifying candidate genes for disorders.
Doctor Anil Malhotra discusses how transcription factors can turn genes on or off, possibly leading to increased or reduced risk of illness.
Evolutionary geneticist Michael Hammer speaks about the markers used to analyze DNA variation in the Y chromosome.