Gallery 22: Marshall Nirenberg at the White House.

Marshall Nirenberg at the White House explaining the genetic code to President Lyndon Johnson.

Marshall Nirenberg, White House, genetic code , President Lyndon Johnson

  • ID: 16496
  • Source: DNALC.DNAFTB

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15683. Marshall Nirenberg and President Lyndon Johnson

Marshall Nirenberg (second left) explaining the genetic code to President Lyndon Johnson (second right)

  • ID: 15683
  • Source: DNAi

16498. Gallery 22: Marshall Nirenberg, 1999

Marshall Nirenberg at the NIH, 1999. He is holding one of the original charts with 'code-cracking' data.

  • ID: 16498
  • Source: DNAFTB

16506. Video 22: Marshall Nirenberg, clip 3

Working out the base compositions for the codons in the genetic code.

  • ID: 16506
  • Source: DNAFTB

16509. Video 22: Marshall Nirenberg, clip 6

Doing the experiments to determine whether the genetic code is universal, and their subsequent philosophical impact.

  • ID: 16509
  • Source: DNAFTB

16507. Video 22: Marshall Nirenberg, clip 4

Using charged tRNAs to prove triplet nature of the genetic code, and to determine the base sequences of codons

  • ID: 16507
  • Source: DNAFTB

15351. Cracking the code in the 1960s, Marshall Nirenberg

Marshall Nirenberg talks about Cracking the code in the 1960s.

  • ID: 15351
  • Source: DNAi

15883. The other codons: Nirenberg and the genetic code

After the easy codons, exact triplets had to be made in order to finish deciphering the rest. Marshall Nirenberg and a group of scientists including Maxine Singer, Marianne Grunberg-Manago, Phil Leder were involved in this process. Har Gobind Khorana al

  • ID: 15883
  • Source: DNAi

16497. Gallery 22: Marshall Nirenberg, 1960

Marshall Nirenberg in his office at the NIH, 1960.

  • ID: 16497
  • Source: DNAFTB

15885. Cell-free extracts

Paul Zamecnik first developed the cell-free extract system, which Marshall Nirenberg adapted to decipher the genetic code. Paul Zamecnik and Mahlon Hoagland also isolated activated tRNA, the "adaptor" that shuttled amino acids to ribsomes for incorporati

  • ID: 15885
  • Source: DNAi

15882. Breaking the code

Marshall Nirenberg and Heinrich Matthaei used poly-U mRNA in a cell-free system to make a polyphenylalanine protein chain. This showed that UUU must be the code that specifies the amino acid phenylalanine.

  • ID: 15882
  • Source: DNAi