Marshall Nirenberg at the NIH, 1999. He is holding one of the original charts with 'code-cracking' data.
Marshall Nirenberg talks about the contributions of Maxine Singer, Marianne Grunberg-Monago and Phil Leder.
DNA words are three letters long
Early in his scientific career, Marshall Nirenberg had to decide what project to pursue. Marshall Nirenberg talks about his decision to become a "code-breaker."
Marshall Nirenberg at the White House explaining the genetic code to President Lyndon Johnson.
Marshall Nirenberg, Har Gobind Khorana, and Robert Holley shared the 1968 Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine. Nirenberg and Khorana cracked the genetic code. Holley sequenced and deduced the structure of the first tRNA molecule.
Marshall Nirenberg, National Institute of Health, 1960.
1966 Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on protein synthesis. (L-R) Marshall Nirenberg, B. P. Doctor, C. T. Caskey.
Marshall Nirenberg and Heinrich Matthaei used poly-U mRNA in a cell-free system to make a polyphenylalanine protein chain. This showed that UUU must be the code that specifies the amino acid phenylalanine.
Explaining the experiment to determine the RNA able to direct the synthesis of proteins.