Long-term Potentiation of synaptic transmission is commonly referred to as LTP. It can be recorded in many parts of the nervous system, but is very widely studied in the hippocampus.
Long-term potentiation is widely studied in the hippocampus: Long-term Potentiation of synaptic transmission is commonly referred to as LTP. It can be recorded in many parts of the nervous system, but is very widely studied in the hippocampus. Recording LTP using electrodes: Using a small slice of the brain from the hippocampus, a little less than half a millimeter thick, an electrode can be placed on the axons thus stimulating them, and another electrode can be placed on the dendrites for recording the synaptic response. It is quite simple to electrically activate the axons to produce an action potential, which then produces a postsynaptic response on the dendrites. And, it is the stimulation of this axon with different patterns and frequencies, that can lead to long-lasting changes in the efficiency of synaptic transmission. This is LTP. Measuring LTP: The response of stimulation is recorded on a computer screen. On the Y-axis here, we can see the strength of synaptic transmission, or the strength of one of these responses. Every minute or so, a single action potential is given and we can see that the strength of synaptic transmission is steady. The Y-axis is the excitatory postsynaptic potential, which is the electrical activity that occurs on the postsynaptic neuron following an action potential. This is a measure of synaptic strength. Inducing and measuring LTP: Now, at this point here, we give a high frequency stimulation for a second or so, and then return to giving a single action potential every minute. We will see that there has been a significant increase in the strength of synaptic transmission, which over the course of the next hour or so, is maintained. This is long-lasting increase in synaptic strength, called long-term potentiation. Long-term depression: At this point, a low-frequency stimulation is given, and we no go back to recording an action potential every minute. And you will see that there has been a reduction in the synaptic strength that is long-lasting. This is long-term depression. Synapses respond to many different patterns: What we have just seen is that synapses can respond to high- or low-frequency patterns, and produce different changes in synaptic strength. But synapses are capable to responding to many different types of patterns, and producing responses to them.
ltp, long term potentiation, potentiation, synaptic, transmission, synaptic strength, action potential, hippocampus, electrode, electrical activity, axon, synapse
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1108. Synaptic Plasticity (1)
Professor Tom O'Dell discusses synaptic plasticity - the strengthening and weakening of synaptic connections between neurons.
485. GABA Neurotransmitter
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a very common neurotransmitter in the Central Nervous System, whose primary function is to inhibit the transmission of a signal through a neuron.
Professor Tom O'Dell defines depotentiation - the erasure of long-term potentiation (LTP) at the synapse.
1283. Long-term Potentiation
Professor Eric Kandel introduces the concept of long-term potentiation, which refers to change in the strength of synaptic connections.
1101. AMPA and NMDA Receptors
Professor Graham Collingridge describes the roles played by NMDA and AMPA receptors in long-term potentiation (LTP).
1208. Long-term Potentiation
Professor Seth Grant explains that long-term potentiation is based on the principle that synapses become stronger with experience.
2069. Long-term potentiation changes cell structures
Professor James Eberwine discusses the structural changes in a cell related to long-term potentiation. These include changes in the shape of dendritic spines.
928. Recording Electrical Activity in Brain Slices
Researchers from the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute demonstrate how action potentials are recorded from brain slices, and how long-term potentiation is measured.
2037. Synapse changes during learning
Professor Kenneth Kosik discusses changes in synapses that accompany long-term potentiation, which include enlarged dendritic spines.
1098. Long-term Potentiation
Professor Graham Collingridge describes the process of long-term potentiation (LTP) - the process by which synapses increase their efficiency.