TMS versus DBS Treatments for Depression
Doctor Abraham Zangen discusses two techniques for treating depression, which involve electrically stimulating the brain - transcranial magnietic stimulation (TMS) and deep brain stimulation (DBS).
The deep brain stimulation is a method in which you insert an electrode to a specific brain region, you leave the electrode inside, you need a surgery for that, and you give repeated stimulation. It is a chronic stimulation. You could just stimulate a few minutes per day or a few hours per day, but usually with DBS (deep brain stimulation), there is a chronic stimulation and it is used mainly for Parkinsonâ€™s disease today. There are many studies showing some efficacy in depression and this is what DBS is all about â€“ stimulating the brain chronically. With TMS, you do not need any surgery; however, of course, you can only give a few minutes like 15 minutes per-day of stimulation and you are trying to modulate, to make long-term effects by this daily treatment, and not to hold the stimulation and affect the brain throughout the day, so it is a different concept. It is the same idea of changing the electrical activity of the brain because TMS, a magnetic stimulation, eventually is producing an electric stimulation just like an electrode inserted in the brain, but you do not need the surgery. You put the coil over the head, and you give daily sessions of 15 to 30 minutes maximum and you are trying to induce long-term alterations like changes in BDNF levels by the daily sessions that will actually maintain the effect for longer periods. In DBS, you are actually trying to modulate it all the time by giving pulses throughout the day.
deep brain stimulation, dbs, transcranial magnietic stimulation, TMS, rTMS, chronic, magnetic, coil, electric, electrode, depression, abraham, zangen
Doctor Abraham Zangen discusses a treatment developed by his group that uses transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to treat depression.
Doctor Abraham Zangen discusses how transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can stimulate different areas of the brain and treat depression.
Doctor Abraham Zangen describes how transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) may affect levels of BDNF in the hippocampus, thereby treating depression.
Doctor Abraham Zangen point out that dopamine and BDNF levels in the nucleus accumbens and hippocampus of depressed patients are different. Treatment with antidepressants or ECT can impact these differences.
Professor Helen Mayberg discusses how deep brain stimulation (DBS) is applied to the subcallosal cingulate, a structure deep in the brain's white matter.
Professor Helen Mayberg describes the dramatic changes observed in depressed patients treated with deep brain stimulation, discussing how this has impacted how we view the brain and treatment.
Researchers from the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute demonstrate how action potentials are recorded from brain slices, and how long-term potentiation is measured.
Long-term Potentiation of synaptic transmission is commonly referred to as LTP. It can be recorded in many parts of the nervous system, but is very widely studied in the hippocampus.
Professor Helen Mayberg discusses the systems affected by deep brain stimulation, which seems to relieve depression without side effects.
Professor Tom O'Dell explains how multiple electrode arrays are being used to study electrical activity in the brain.