Hormones, Depression, and Anxiety
Doctor Daniel Pine explains that hormones are a contributing factor to the development of anxiety and depression. They interact with a number of other factors to cause to these disorders.
Most problems with emotion involve many different factors and they all kind of make small to medium contributions. Hormones fall into that category of influences. Hormones can have some effect on emotions and some effect on anxiety and some effect on depression, but hormones are not enough in and of themselves to lead people to be anxious or depressed. For example, we know that there is this strong relationship between puberty, particularly in girls, which is something that involves hormones and depression. On the other hand, most girls who go through puberty even if they have very high hormone levels will not get depressed. So, it is not enough to just have high levels of hormones, you need something else. For example, maybe girls who have high levels of hormones have particularly stressful environments and grow up in families where there is a lot of depression. Once you have all three of those things, maybe that is what you need to get depressed.
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Doctor Daniel Pine discusses explains that anxiety is more common in girls and women. Depression is also more common in women, but only after puberty. Anxiety may predict depression.
Doctor Daniel Pine introduces the diathesis-stress model for anxiety and depression. The model posits that stress combines with inherited factors to produce disorder.
Doctor Daniel Pine explains that the environment is particularly important to determining how we understand, treat, and respond to anxiety.
Doctor Daniel Pine defines anxiety as fear and apprehension about dangers that are not immediately present. Over time, anxiety can lead to depression.
Professor Wayne Drevets explains that depression most commonly arises after puberty. There are exceptions, where it arises in childhood or in relatively late adulthood.
Doctor Daniel Pine explains that although a lot of work remains to be done, noerpinephrine (noradrenalin) and serotonin are important to understanding the biochemistry of anxiety.
Doctor Daniel Pine estimates that approximately 30-50% of the risk for anxiety and depression is genetic. Genetic treatments are an exciting area of research currently.
Doctor Daniel Pine explains that the amygdala is involved in learning to respond to a fearful experience fear-learning. There is evidence that the same response can lead to PTSD.
Professor Wayne Drevets outlines the amygdala's importance to the neurobiology of depression. He concludes that stimulation of the amygdala can elicit depression-like emotional experiences.
Doctor Daniel Pine introduces the fight-or-flight response, which is a common mechanism in mammals in response to a threat. It prepares the body to either run away or fight the threat.