Biochemistry and Anxiety
Doctor Daniel Pine explains that although a lot of work remains to be done, noerpinephrine (noradrenalin) and serotonin are important to understanding the biochemistry of anxiety.
For many, many years, there have been questions about the nature of the relationship between different chemicals in the brain and problems in functioning emotionally. In terms of problems with fear and anxiety, there has been far more consistent interest in norepinephrine and serotonin than there has been in dopamine. While this interest has remained strong, there have been longstanding questions about what is the precise nature of the relationship between problems in any of these chemicals and problems in terms of clinically relevant functioning. So, we do know that medications that change either norepinephrine or serotonin can be quite effective and helpful to patients and that has kind of sustained this interest â€“ both in norepinephrine and in serotonin. However, how exactly it is that these medications work, or what is exactly the nature of the relationship between changes in brain chemistry and changes in how patients are functioning, is something that is still very early in terms of where research is going.
biochemistry, norepinephrnie, noradrenalin, noradrenaline, dopamine, anxiety, fear, daniel, pine, danny
Doctor Daniel Pine defines anxiety as fear and apprehension about dangers that are not immediately present. Over time, anxiety can lead to depression.
Professor Trevor Robbins discusses ADHD in relation to noradrenaline and dopamine, both of which are enhanced by ADHD medications such as Ritalin.
Professor Trevor Robbins discusses whether ADHD is a disorder of the noradrenaline system.
Doctor Daniel Pine introduces the fight-or-flight response, which is a common mechanism in mammals in response to a threat. It prepares the body to either run away or fight the threat.
Doctor Daniel Pine explains that it can be normal and healthy to feel anxiety. Anxiety disorders, however, interfere with people’s ability to function normally.
Doctor Daniel Pine explains that hormones are a contributing factor to the development of anxiety and depression. They interact with a number of other factors to cause to these disorders.
Doctor Daniel Pine introduces the diathesis-stress model for anxiety and depression. The model posits that stress combines with inherited factors to produce disorder.
Doctor Daniel Pine explains that the environment is particularly important to determining how we understand, treat, and respond to anxiety.
Doctor Daniel Pine estimates that approximately 30-50% of the risk for anxiety and depression is genetic. Genetic treatments are an exciting area of research currently.
Serotonin is the biochemical most commonly associated with depression. Professor Wayne Drevets discusses other systems including norepinephrine, glutamate, and dopamine.