Concept 34: Genes can be moved between species.
Recombinant DNA technology has made it possible to test gene function in bacteria or cell cultures rather than animal models.
Because of the universality of the genetic code, the polymerases of one organism can accurately transcribe a gene from another organism. For example, different species of bacteria obtain antibiotic resistance genes by exchanging small chromosomes called plasmids. In the early 1970s, researchers in California used this type of gene exchange to move a "recombinant" DNA molecule between two different species. By the early 1980s, other scientists adapted the technique and spliced a human gene into E. coli to make recombinant human insulin and growth hormone. Recombinant DNA technology �€” genetic engineering �€” has made it possible to gain insight into how genes work. In cases where it is impractical to test gene function using animal models, genes can first be expressed in bacteria or cell cultures. Similarly, the phenotypes of gene mutations and the efficacy of drugs and other agents can be tested using recombinant systems.
antibiotic resistance genes, recombinant dna technology, recombinant human insulin, different species of bacteria, dna molecule, species of bacteria, gene mutations, cell cultures, gene exchange, animal models, gene function, polymerases, genetic code, phenotypes, chromosomes, genetic engineering
- ID: 16704
- Source: DNALC.DNAFTB
Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer transform bacteria with a recombinant plasmid, and Doug Hanahan studies induced transformation.
Genetic engineering: inserting new DNA into a plasmid vector.
All organisms store genetic information in DNA and RNA.
Mario Capecchi describes proteomics; the large-scale study of protein structure and function. Brian Sauer explains gene knock outs.
This method uses homologous recombination to disable a gene of interest to produce a genetic knockout.
Model organisms share with humans many key biochemical and physiological functions that have been conserved (maintained) by evolution.
Mike Wigler shows how all organisms share similar genes, called homologs.
Use green fluorescent protein to tag expression of genes.
Walter Gilbert talks about his group's early success with isolating the rat insulin gene and making recombinant rat insulin.
Joshua Lederberg worked with bacterial genetics while Alfred Hershey showed that DNA is responsible for the reproduction of new viruses in a cell.