Some mutations are starting points for evolution, others are responsible for disease.
An image of a family tree depicting the occurance of single nucleotide polymorphisms.
Mutations are the grist of evolution, and have accumulated in our DNA over time. When populations separate, each group accumulates their own unique set of DNA mutations.
Mutations in our DNA can be used to trace the relationships between different populations and species.
Geneticist Mark Stoneking talks about the difficulties of measuring time by mutations.
Use mutations to measure human evolution.
A hypothetical family tree useing color to illustrate different lineages. At each colored branching point, one lineage has accumulated a new mutation. The black line indicates modern times.
Herman Muller induces fruit fly mutations. Seymour Benzer works with virus mutants ans proved only one nucleotide change can cause mutation.
DNA nucleotides (black letter tiles) matched in groups of two to amino acids (red letter tiles).
Unlike nuclear DNA, mtDNA is Â inherited solely from the mother. (Mitochondria are predominantly from the motherâs egg and not from the fatherâs sperm.) Therefore, mtDNA sequences or orders of nucleotides generally remain constant over many generation