A single DNA nucleotide undergoes a "point" mutation, changing an A to a T.
A single nucleotide polymorphism, or SNP, occurs when two individuals in the population differ by a single letter in the DNA sequence.
Mark Skolnick talks about using RFLPs or SNPs to study patterns in families
Evolutionary geneticist Michael Hammer speaks about the markers used to analyze DNA variation in the Y chromosome.
Some mutations are starting points for evolution, others are responsible for disease.
Use mutations to measure human evolution.
Mutations in our DNA can be used to trace the relationships between different populations and species.
A hypothetical family tree useing color to illustrate different lineages. At each colored branching point, one lineage has accumulated a new mutation. The black line indicates modern times.
Cancer is a disease that affects people of all nationalities and age groups and all cancers start with mutations in one cell.
Geneticist Mark Stoneking talks about the difficulties of measuring time by mutations.