Mutations are the grist of evolution, and have accumulated in our DNA over time. When populations separate, each group accumulates their own unique set of DNA mutations.
Use mutations to measure human evolution.
Phylogenetic relationships of modern humans, Neandertals, and chimps.
What molecular genetics tells us about the Neandertal relationship to modern humans.
Some mutations are starting points for evolution, others are responsible for disease.
A single DNA nucleotide undergoes a "point" mutation, changing an A to a T.
Variation between mtDNA (HVR1) samples from chimp, Neandertal and human.
Mutations and the molecular clock.
Human mitochondrial DNA is 16,569 base pairs in length.
Comparison of genetic diversity in humans and chimpanzees, using sequences from 811 humans and 332 chimps.