Long- and Short-term Memory Differences (1)
Professor Eric Kandel compares short-term memory, which involves the alteration of pre-existing proteins, and long-term memory, which involves new protein synthesis.
There are dramatic differences. Short-term memory involves alterations in pre-existing proteins. Long-term memory involves new protein synthesis. The way that happens is short-term memory involves recruitment of signaling pathways in the brain, like the cyclic AMP pathway and the calcium/calmodulin dependent kinase pathway. These activate enzymes - calmodulin dependent protein kinase, or the cyclic AMP dependent protein kinase. And they produce actions locally on the release machinery for transmitter control in the presynaptic terminal and on postsynaptic receptors. Long-term memory involves the movement of those signaling pathways into the nucleus to turn on gene expression, and that turning-on of gene expression gives rise to the growth of new synaptic connections. So, short-term memory involves alterations in pre-existing proteins, usually through protein phosphorylation and alteration in the strength of pre-existing connections. Long-term memory involves gene expression, new protein synthesis and the growth of new synaptic connections.
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Professor Eric Kandel discusses changes in synapse structure during long-term memory. Research indicates these changes are synapse-specific and not neuron-wide.
Professor Ron Davis explains that short-term memories are formed by recruiting new synapses. It is unknown whether long-term memories are formed in the same way.
Professor Eric Kandel introduces the concept of long-term potentiation, which refers to change in the strength of synaptic connections.
Learning and memory are two intimately linked cognitive processes that stem from interactions with the environment (experience).
Professor Seth Grant explains that long-term memories are created when the synapse sends a signal to the nucleus to activate certain genes.
Professor Eric Kandel discusses the importance of the hippocampus in the formation of long-term memories.
Professor Ron Davis describes how memories are formed through the addition of new synapses.
Professor Eric Kandel explains that events in the environment can have profound effects on gene expression and brain anatomy.
Professor Eric Kandel explains how a protein called CPB may have a built-in memory mechanism that can help long-term memory storage.
Professor Karim Nader explains that consolidation is a theory of memory that attributes memory formation to changes in synaptic strength and efficiency.