Hallmarks, Becoming immortal: Hanahan
Professor Douglas Hanahan, discusses that due to the nature of the replication machinery chromosomes get smaller every time they divide, and that we now appreciate that specialized cells in the body have a way to counteract this telomere shorting.
In 2000, Douglas Hanahan (shown below) and Robert Weinberg published a paper in Cell, "The Hallmarks of Cancer," which identified some organizing principles of cancer cell development. â€The nature of the replication machinery is that chromosomes get smaller every time they divide. And we now appreciate that specialized cells in the body have a way to counteract this telomere shorting and thatâ€™s using several strategies of which the most prominent is an enzyme known as telomerase that protects the ends of chromosomes from this erosion.â€
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- ID: 946
- Source: DNALC.IC
Professor Robert Weinberg explains how normal cells can only double a certain limited number of times; and cancer cells have to learn how to proliferate indefinitely, i.e, they have to become immortalized.
Professor Douglas Hanahan discusses how cancers kill you, in general, not just because they grow into a large lump, but because they invade into normal tissues and disrupt the functions of those tissues.
Professor Douglas Hanahan discusses how cancer acquires capabilities and these capabilities are all, to some approximation, necessary to produce a successful tumor.
Professor Robert Weinberg discusses how cancer cells have to learn how to avoid the process of programmed cell death known as apoptosis carried out in normal cells.
Professor Robert Weinberg explains that cancer cells have to learn how to grow in the absence of growth stimulatory signals that normal cells require from their environment.
Professor Douglas Hanahan explains that a fundamental property of multi-cellular organisms is the capability to have cells commit suicide or undergo apoptosis, which is a form of programmed cell death.
Professor Robert Weinberg explains how cancer cells have to learn how to become angiogenic, that is to say attract blood vessels to grow into the tumor mass.
Professor Robert Weinberg, explains that cancer cells have to learn how to invade and metastasize.
Professor Douglas Hanahan discusses how cancer cells require a source of nutrients and oxygen, which is supplied through new blood vessel growth – the process of angiogenesis, which is critical for almost all cancers.
Matt Ridley talks about chromosome 14, gene involved in producing part of telomerase.