Hallmarks, Processing nutrients
Professor Robert Weinberg explains how cancer cells have to learn how to become angiogenic, that is to say attract blood vessels to grow into the tumor mass.
To grow beyond a certain size, tumors need a system to bring in nutrients and take out wastes. The cancer cells that make up a tumor attract blood vessels to grow into the tumor mass. The blood vessels then nourish the tumor just like any organ in the body. Robert Weinberg, Ph.D., Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research: â€œCancer cells have to learn how to become angiogenic, that is to say attract blood vessels to grow into the tumor mass, thereby providing the tumor with nutrients and glucose and oxygen and evacuating metabolic wastes and carbon dioxide.â€ In 2000, Douglas Hanahan (shown below) and Robert Weinberg published a paper in Cell, "The Hallmarks of Cancer," which identified some organizing principles of cancer cell development. â€œAs a cell, you need oxygen to breathe, the same way that the organism does. That dividing nest of cells will in some sense suffocate from lack of nutrients and oxygen and from their own waste unless they have a blood supply. It is now clear that induction and new blood vessel growth â€“ the process of angiogenesis â€“ is critical for almost all cancers, some less than others. Perhaps the leukemias and the blood-borne ones are less angiogenesis-dependent, but it may be that all cancers, in some sense, activate the vascular system to help support it.â€
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- ID: 943
- Source: DNALC.IC
Professor Douglas Hanahan discusses how cancer cells require a source of nutrients and oxygen, which is supplied through new blood vessel growth – the process of angiogenesis, which is critical for almost all cancers.
Professor Robert Weinberg explains that cancer cells have to learn how to grow in the absence of growth stimulatory signals that normal cells require from their environment.
Professor Robert Weinberg discusses how cancer cells have to learn how to avoid the process of programmed cell death known as apoptosis carried out in normal cells.
Professor Robert Weinberg, explains that cancer cells have to learn how to invade and metastasize.
Cancer is a disease that affects people of all nationalities and age groups and all cancers start with mutations in one cell.
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Professor Vogelstein explains that the only difference between a benign tumor and a malignant tumor is not the size, it's the ability of the malignant tumor to invade, and get through the tissues.
Cell division is essential for healthy growth of an organism and complex genetic mechanisms have evolved to switch cell division on and off at the proper time for normal development.
Professor Robert Weinberg explains how normal cells can only double a certain limited number of times; and cancer cells have to learn how to proliferate indefinitely, i.e, they have to become immortalized.
In Familial Adenomatous Polyposis, a complex cascade of events leads from an initial mutation in a “gatekeeper” gene, eventually to a malignant tumor.