Hallmarks, Growing uncontrollably
Professor Robert Weinberg explains that cancer cells have to learn how to grow in the absence of growth stimulatory signals that normal cells require from their environment.
Cancer cells do not respond to signals that usually regulate cell growth and division. These cells grow unchecked, producing more and more cancer cells. Robert Weinberg, Ph.D., Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research: â€œCancer cells have to learn how to grow in the absence of growth stimulatory signals that normal cells require from their environment.â€ â€œCancer cells have to learn how to grow in the presence of growth inhibitory signals that normally succeed in stopping the proliferation of normal cells.â€ In 2000, Douglas Hanahan (shown below) and Robert Weinberg published a paper in Cell, "The Hallmarks of Cancer," which identified some organizing principles of cancer cell development. â€œNot only are there positive signals that say grow but there are brakes which serve normally to stop such proliferation. And the loss of these growth control signals, these negative growth controls is again a common denominator for many cancers and this is separable in some sense from the growth stimulation, it's very much like putting your foot on the gas pedal, you put your foot on the gas pedal, the engine revs up, but if you've got your foot on the brake you still may not go anywhere. So these again are conceptually although they both relate to the ability of the cell to divide continuously they each have separable capabilities.â€
whitehead institute for biomedical research, robert weinberg, cancer cells, common denominator, research cancer, foot on the gas, cancer cell, professor robert, hallmarks, proliferation, cancers, signals, brakes, absence, presence
- ID: 939
- Source: DNALC.IC
Professor Robert Weinberg discusses how cancer cells have to learn how to avoid the process of programmed cell death known as apoptosis carried out in normal cells.
Professor Douglas Hanahan explains that not only are there positive signals that tell cells to grow but there are negative signals to stop such proliferation, and loss of the negative growth control signals is a common denominator for many cancers.
Professor Robert Weinberg explains how cancer cells have to learn how to become angiogenic, that is to say attract blood vessels to grow into the tumor mass.
Professor Robert Weinberg, explains that cancer cells have to learn how to invade and metastasize.
Professor Robert Weinberg explains how normal cells can only double a certain limited number of times; and cancer cells have to learn how to proliferate indefinitely, i.e, they have to become immortalized.
Cancer is a disease that affects people of all nationalities and age groups and all cancers start with mutations in one cell.
Professor Douglas Hanahan discusses how cancer acquires capabilities and these capabilities are all, to some approximation, necessary to produce a successful tumor.
Professor Douglas Hanahan explains that a fundamental property of multi-cellular organisms is the capability to have cells commit suicide or undergo apoptosis, which is a form of programmed cell death.
This section identifies that a cancer gene alters the normal functioning of a protein, and there are three major categories of cancer genes.
Professor Douglas Hanahan discusses how cancers kill you, in general, not just because they grow into a large lump, but because they invade into normal tissues and disrupt the functions of those tissues.