What is 4-D imaging?
Professor Rusty Lansford explains that modern imaging techniques use four dimensions - the x, y, and z spatial coordinates, as well as one other critical variable - time.
4-D imaging is slang for four-dimensional imaging. By that, we that mean we are imaging in x and y [axes], just normal space. Z would be depth and then t, is typically what we call that 4th dimension, is time. We are trying to dynamically image a developing organism, so we all develop in three dimensions, we walk around in a three-dimensional world and weâ€™re trying to dynamically image that all in time. So in a sense weâ€™re not taking snap shots of a developing embryo we are literally taking movies â€“ like this.
4-d, four, dimensional, imaging, axes, time, x, y, z, three dimensions, rusty, lansford
Professor Rusty Lansford compares fluorescent microscopy, which images at the molecular level, and MRI, which images at the cellular/neural level.
Professor Rusty Lansford explains that dynamic imaging is important because it allows researchers to examine active development rather than interpreting a series of snapshots.
Professor Rusty Lansford explains that quail make a good model system because they are small, easy to grow in a laboratory, and develop quickly.
Professor Rusty Lansford discuss the attributes that make birds a good model system - we can see developmental events that are going on in an egg that cannot be seen in a mammal in utero.
Professor Rusty Lansford describes how researchers examine avian systems by opening an egg and dynamically imaging developmental events under a microscope.
The Jukes in 1915, by Arthur H. Estabrook, selected pages (6)
James Watson and Francis Crick explain how they solved the structure of DNA. Erwin Chargaff explain how he measured the levels of each of the four nitrogenous bases.
Professor Rusty Lansford explains that all genes are not expressed in the same levels in different cells; there is a lot of differential regulation.
Animation of 2D DNA model becoming three dimensional.
Deoxyribose and phosphate molecules form the uprights and nucleotide pair form the rungs of the DNA ladder.