Dynamic imaging and fluorescent microscopy
Professor Rusty Lansford explains that dynamic imaging is important because it allows researchers to examine active development rather than interpreting a series of snapshots.
The reason we think it is so essential to do this kind of dynamic imaging or 4-D imaging, if you will, is it allows us to see the entire picture of what is going on during development. An analogy that I heard and will paraphrase, is that if you are watching a soccer game and you are watching the beginning of a soccer game, you might see 11 players on each side of the pitch, youâ€™d see 3 referees (2 linesman and one center referee), a ball in the center, and the scoreboard would say 0:0. If you take another picture at the end of the game, you might see that it was 3:2. The players are in different positions, theyâ€™re muddy, some may be bleeding. The referee would also be in a different position, maybe sweaty, but you wouldnâ€™t understand how that score became 3:2, you wouldnâ€™t understand the process of the soccer game. And likewise in a developing embryo, our logic is that you might be able to take a snapshot at the beginning stage of how the brain is forming, you might see tissue statically there. 24 hours later you might take another snapshot and you would see that no longer is the embryo flat up around the forming brain, it maybe has formed a tube or formed different vesicles. But you probably wouldnâ€™t understand the process. What we are trying to do is that we have developed ways to put little fluorescent light bulbs inside all the individual cells through a protein called Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) or some of the spectral analogs of GFP. It comes in different varieties; you can have blue, or cyan, or green, or yellow, or orange, or red, even plum and so what we try to do is to put these little light bulbs inside that allow us to dynamically image all the little events going on when the cells are moving in a certain direction, when they stop, their speed, when they change directions, when they get to a certain region and differentiate and become a neuron or a blood vessel or something like that. And so again, we feel that by not only dynamically doing all of our experiments but also by dynamically imaging everything we have a better idea of the process of development.
dynamic, imaging, 4-d, 4-dimensional, fluorescent microscopy, gfp, embryo, embryogenesis, rusty, lansford
Professor Rusty Lansford explains that modern imaging techniques use four dimensions - the x, y, and z spatial coordinates, as well as one other critical variable - time.
Professor Rusty Lansford compares fluorescent microscopy, which images at the molecular level, and MRI, which images at the cellular/neural level.
Professor Rusty Lansford describes how researchers examine avian systems by opening an egg and dynamically imaging developmental events under a microscope.
Professor Rusty Lansford discuss the attributes that make birds a good model system - we can see developmental events that are going on in an egg that cannot be seen in a mammal in utero.
Professor Jeff Lichtman examines the technique of fluorescence microscopy in terms of its benefits (e.g. exquisite resolution) and its drawbacks (e.g. confined by the wavelength of light).
Professor Jeff Lichtman introduces fluorescence microscopy, a powerful technique of illuminating minuscule molecules for analysis by very powerful microscopes.
Images from brain scans and new microscopy techniques are offering a strikingly clear glimpse of what’s going on underneath the bumpy surface of our skulls.
New York high school students interview Nobel Laureate, Dr. Martin Chalfie of Columbia University, then perform the experiment with green fluorescent protein (GFP) that he pioneered.
Professor Rusty Lansford explains that quail make a good model system because they are small, easy to grow in a laboratory, and develop quickly.
Use green fluorescent protein to tag expression of genes.