Endophenotypes for bipolar disorder
Professor James Potash describes how endophenotypes are used to study bipolar disorder. Endophenotypes are essentially subtypes of larger symptoms.
Because we think that there probably are many, many genes involved in susceptibility to bipolar disorder; weâ€™re thinking it may be dozens; it may be more than that. One approach to isolate the effects of individual genes or a particular gene variance would be to get a more homogeneous set of people to study or phenotype to study. One approach that we are using at [Johns] Hopkins and some other groups around the world are doing as well is to look at clinically defined homogeneous subtypes; so for example only the subset of people who have psychotic symptoms, that is hallucinations and delusions which is about half of the people with bipolar [disorder] 1. We are also interested in only looking at people who have an early onset of illness, so if you only look at people whose illness begins in childhood or adolescence you might have a more homogeneous subset.
bipolar disorder, phenotypes, endophenotypes, hallucinations, genes, susceptibility, professor james, potash
Professor James Potash describes how the diathesis-stress model can be used to understand interactions between genes and the environment. He refers specifically to bipolar disorder.
An overview of bipolar disorder-related content on Genes to Cognition Online.
Professor James Potash explains that most individuals with bipolar disorder lead normal lives and respond well to lithium medication.
Professor James Potash discusses studies that show reductions in hippocampal volume in people with depression and abnormalities in cingulate areas in patients with bipolar disorder.
Professor James Potash explains that, for many bipolar disorder patients, managing medications can be difficult.
Professor James Potash describes the difference between linkage and association studies, which are two ways of locating candidate genes. These are discussed in reference to bipolar disorder,
Professor James Potash discusses two hypotheses on how lithium, which has been successfully used to treat bipolar disorder for many years, may affect the brain.
Professor James Potash explains that bipolar disorder is episodic: people get ill, then they get well again and then the illness may come back again at a later date.
Professor Daniel Geschwind explains that studying endophenotypes is a useful way to understand the complexities of autism.
Professor James Potash discusses the dramatic increase in the rates of diagnosis of childhood bipolar disorder, which has risen forty-fold in recent years.