Synthesizing human insulin using recombinant DNA, 3D animation with no audio
The group at Genentech synthesized the human insulin DNA sequence, which they then inserted into bacteria for insulin production. (DNAi Location: Manipulation > Production > Pieces of the puzzle > Synthesizing the DNA)
In order to synthesize human insulin using recombinant DNA technology, the human DNA sequence for insulin was needed. The amino acid sequence of human insulin was known. The Genentech group deduced the human DNA sequence of insulin based on its amino acid sequence. They then used the DNA nucleotides and synthesized the human DNA sequence. This sequence was then inserted into a plasmid and transformed into bacteria to produce insulin. By synthesizing the DNA sequence, the Genentech group assembled a human DNA sequence of insulin without ever having to use "real" human DNA. They thus bypassed some of the restrictions on human recombinant DNA work resulting from the Asilomar conference.
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- ID: 15505
- Source: DNALC.DNAi
Genentech, the first biotechnology company, established in 1976.
Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer transform bacteria with a recombinant plasmid, and Doug Hanahan studies induced transformation.
Walter Gilbert talks about the reasons for making insulin with recombinant DNA.
Genetic engineering: inserting new DNA into a plasmid vector.
DNA has four "letters" that must specify the 20 different amino acids that make up proteins. Combinatorially, using three DNA letters for one amino acid makes the most sense.
How was synthetic insulin first made? Although the idea was simple, in practice there were substantial problems. No one had the human DNA sequence for insulin, and there was a moratorium on the production of human recombinant DNA. Two different strateg
David Goeddel was one of the first scientists Herb Boyer hired for the insulin project. Here, David Goeddel talks about Genentech's general strategy for synthesizing insulin.
The recombinant DNA moratorium meant Gilbert had to go to England's Porton Down facility to try and isolate human insulin. He only had one chance ...
Frederick Sanger talks about the differences between sequencing proteins and sequencing DNA.
Fred Sanger outlines DNA sequencing.