Synthesizing human insulin using recombinant DNA, 3D animation with no audio
The group at Genentech synthesized the human insulin DNA sequence, which they then inserted into bacteria for insulin production. (DNAi Location: Manipulation > Production > Pieces of the puzzle > Synthesizing the DNA)
In order to synthesize human insulin using recombinant DNA technology, the human DNA sequence for insulin was needed. The amino acid sequence of human insulin was known. The Genentech group deduced the human DNA sequence of insulin based on its amino acid sequence. They then used the DNA nucleotides and synthesized the human DNA sequence. This sequence was then inserted into a plasmid and transformed into bacteria to produce insulin. By synthesizing the DNA sequence, the Genentech group assembled a human DNA sequence of insulin without ever having to use "real" human DNA. They thus bypassed some of the restrictions on human recombinant DNA work resulting from the Asilomar conference.
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- ID: 15505
- Source: DNALC.DNAi
Genentech, the first biotechnology company, established in 1976.
16705. Animation 34: Genes can be moved between species.
Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer transform bacteria with a recombinant plasmid, and Doug Hanahan studies induced transformation.
15255. Producing human insulin using recombinant DNA, Walter Gilbert
Walter Gilbert talks about the reasons for making insulin with recombinant DNA.
15476. Mechanism of Recombination, 3D animation with with basic narration
Genetic engineering: inserting new DNA into a plasmid vector.
15513. How many bases code for an amino acid?, 3D animation with basic narration
DNA has four "letters" that must specify the 20 different amino acids that make up proteins. Combinatorially, using three DNA letters for one amino acid makes the most sense.
15644. Vats used to grow bacteria
How was synthetic insulin first made? Although the idea was simple, in practice there were substantial problems. No one had the human DNA sequence for insulin, and there was a moratorium on the production of human recombinant DNA. Two different strateg
15087. Genentech's approach to making insulin, David Goeddel
David Goeddel was one of the first scientists Herb Boyer hired for the insulin project. Here, David Goeddel talks about Genentech's general strategy for synthesizing insulin.
15259. Cloning the human insulin gene, Walter Gilbert
The recombinant DNA moratorium meant Gilbert had to go to England's Porton Down facility to try and isolate human insulin. He only had one chance ...
15160. Sequencing proteins and DNA, Frederick Sanger
Frederick Sanger talks about the differences between sequencing proteins and sequencing DNA.
16515. Animation 23: A gene is a discrete sequence of DNA nucleotides.
Fred Sanger outlines DNA sequencing.