Sequencing proteins and DNA, Frederick Sanger
Interviewee: Frederick Sanger. Frederick Sanger talks about the differences between sequencing proteins and sequencing DNA. (DNAi Location: Manipulation > Techniques > Sorting and sequencing > Interviews > Sequencing proteins and DNA)
You know, at first we tried to use the methods we'd used for proteins and to some extent these worked. But it was, turned out to be a very different problem because the proteins have twenty components, twenty amino acids, and all different. Whereas the nucleic acids just have the four components, the mononucleotides, and you have to work out sequencing on that. And the methods used for proteins were not generally applicable. For instance they were, the amino acids were all very different chemically, so you could work out methods for separating them. Whereas the nucleic acids only had the four components, which were rather similar and so you knew, had to use quite different methods.
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Frederick Sanger received two Nobel prizes (in the same category), for his work on protein sequencing and DNA sequencing.
Frederick Sanger talks about the results from sequencing human mitochondrial DNA.
Frederick Sanger describes the use of computers in sequencing.
The DNA sequencing method developed by Fred Sanger forms the basis of automated "cycle" sequencing reactions today.
Michael Hunkapiller talks about the process of developing the automated sequencing machine.
A gene is a discrete sequence of DNA nucleotides
Fred Sanger outlines DNA sequencing.
Early sequencers used four different reactions to determine the placement of each of DNA's four bases - known as A, C, T & G - in the sequence.
Two sequencing techniques were developed independently in the 1970s. The method developed by Fred Sanger used chemically altered "dideoxy" bases to terminate newly synthesized DNA fragments at specific bases (either A, C, T, or G). These fragments are th
Fred Sanger in his lab, late 1950's. He is looking at sequencing results.