Fred Sanger, late 1940's.
Fred Sanger and his wife, 1940.
Fred Sanger (middle) at age 11 with his older brother and younger sister.
Fred Sanger at his second Nobel Prize ceremony, 1980.
Fred Sanger at a 1949 Cold Spring Harbor Symposium meeting.
Fred Sanger in his lab, late 1950's. He is looking at sequencing results.
Two sequencing techniques were developed independently in the 1970s. The method developed by Fred Sanger used chemically altered "dideoxy" bases to terminate newly synthesized DNA fragments at specific bases (either A, C, T, or G). These fragments are th
The sequencing method developed by Fred Sanger forms the basis of automated "cycle" sequencing reactions today. Fluorescent dyes are added to the reactions, and a laser within an automated DNA sequencing machine is used to analyze the DNA fragments produc
The DNA sequencing method developed by Fred Sanger forms the basis of automated "cycle" sequencing reactions today.
Comments about the way sequencing is done as developed by Fred Sanger and now.