Computers and sequencing, Frederick Sanger
Interviewee: Frederick Sanger. Frederick Sanger describes the use of computers in sequencing. (DNAi Location: Manipulation >Techniques > Sorting and sequencing > Interviews > Computers and sequencing)
We were doing it all by hand and working it out. We had just started using a computer, just to store the data, but now of course a lot of the work is done with the computers and the reactions are done automatically with robotics, and the results go straight into the computer and then analyzed. One of the troubles when we were working initially was that, you know, we had a few mistakes and usually those mistakes turned out to be just copying mistakes. When you got a sequence and then you have to write out two sequences together and the, you know, when you're doing it by hand there were many more mistakes just due to the copying then.
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Frederick Sanger talks about the differences between sequencing proteins and sequencing DNA.
Frederick Sanger talks about the results from sequencing human mitochondrial DNA.
The DNA sequencing method developed by Fred Sanger forms the basis of automated "cycle" sequencing reactions today.
Michael Hunkapiller talks about the process of developing the automated sequencing machine.
Frederick Sanger received two Nobel prizes (in the same category), for his work on protein sequencing and DNA sequencing.
Early sequencers used four different reactions to determine the placement of each of DNA's four bases - known as A, C, T & G - in the sequence.
Two sequencing techniques were developed independently in the 1970s. The method developed by Fred Sanger used chemically altered "dideoxy" bases to terminate newly synthesized DNA fragments at specific bases (either A, C, T, or G). These fragments are th
Frederick Sanger, Michael Hunkapiller, and Leroy Hood.
A gene is a discrete sequence of DNA nucleotides
Fred Sanger in his lab, late 1950's. He is looking at sequencing results.