Professor Tom O'Dell defines phosphorylation - the addition of a phosphate group to a protein molecule to regulate gene function.
Protein phosphorylation or phosphorylation, in the technical sense, is the attachment of a phosphate group onto a protein. It is done by a particular class of enzymes called protein kinases that use ATP as a substrate and attach a phosphate group onto a protein â€“ and that protein is phosphorylated. The key to protein phosphorylation is that it modifies the activity of that protein. So proteins in the cell that are involved in detecting chemical signals, or proteins that are involved in structural organization and integrity of the cell, proteins that are involved in allowing ions to move back and forth across the membrane â€“ all of those proteins, even proteins that regulate the expression of genes, are regulated by phosphorylation. When they are phosphorylated, their activity changes and codes a signal that a cell can use in many, many different ways.
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Professor Tom O'Dell describes the role played by NMDA receptors, as part of a large multi-protein complex, in facilitating long-term potentiation (LTP).
Professor Tom O'Dell comments that phosphorylation plays a crucial role in synaptic plasticity.
Professor Tom O'Dell discusses the importance of electrophysiology to the study of cognition.
Professor Tom O'Dell defines depotentiation - the erasure of long-term potentiation (LTP) at the synapse.
Professor Tom O'Dell discusses synaptic plasticity - the strengthening and weakening of synaptic connections between neurons.
Cognitive information is encoded in patterns of nervous activity and decoded by molecular listening devices at the synapse. Professor Seth Grant explains how different patterns of neural firing are critical to cognition.
Professor Tom O'Dell describes different techniques for studying the physiology of the nervous system.
Professor Tom O'Dell introduces some of the advanced techniques used to examine the electrical activity of brain cells.
Professor Tom O'Dell explains how multiple electrode arrays are being used to study electrical activity in the brain.
Professor James Eberwine describes the primary functions of RNA-binding proteins, which include regulating tRNAs, degrading RNAs, synthesizing RNAs, and regulating multigenic gene expression.