Diagnosis, Targeted therapies: Blocking receptors
In this section, hear what experts have to say about drugs that disrupt the function of receptors on a cell's surface.
Blocking Receptors In this section, hear what experts have to say about drugs that disrupt the function of receptors on a cell's surface. Breast cancer â€“ the most prevalent cancer affecting women â€“ is being successfully treated using these "receptor blockers." Click forward to find out more about two breast cancer drugs and their receptor targets. Larry Norton, M.D., Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center: â€œWell many cancers actually require hormones to grow. Breast cancer is a very good example. Breast cancer arises in the breast, and the breast is an organ that is responsive to the female hormone, estrogen.â€ â€œCancers derived in the breast, therefore, especially in older women, tend to require estrogen to grow. If we can starve that cell of estrogen, we can actually make that cancer cell die.â€ â€œAnd thatâ€™s what we do right now with a couple of different approaches. One of the drugs is called tamoxifen, which actually attaches to the estrogen receptor.â€ â€œThe estrogen receptor is a protein that is found in many breast cancer cells that finds estrogen in surrounding blood, takes it into the cell, and signals the cell to grow.â€ â€œWell, tamoxifen attaches to the estrogen receptor so the estrogen canâ€™t attach to the receptor. And when tamoxifen and the receptor for estrogen go into the nucleus of the cell, it attaches to the DNA and actually signals the cell not only to grow but to die. So thatâ€™s a very important molecule.â€ â€œOne of the really important things to know about cancer is that no two cancers are the same. They're all different. There is tremendous variations in the molecules that are involved in making a cell cancerous. By identifying those molecules in the individual case, we can individualize therapy â€“ give people the medicines they need, and not give medicines to people if they are not going to benefit.â€ The estrogen receptor is not the only target in the treatment of breast cancer. Another important target is the human epidermal growth factor receptor (Her-2), which is overexpressed in 25% of breast cancers, leading to cellular growth and proliferation. â€œIf a cell has too much her2, the cell will be dividing too often because the cell will be interpreting many stimuli in the environment as stimuli cause it to divide whereas a normal cell wouldnâ€™t. It makes that cell have too much of a tendency for cell division and to go on to form a lump and to go on and spread into the surrounding tissue like an invasion or to grow on other parts of the body.â€ â€œWe've developed an antibody that attaches to her2. Antibodies are the proteins that your body makes naturally in response to infections. And your body normally makes lots of antibodies, and should be that's how come you fight lots of infections. However, we can now make her2 antibodies â€“ we call it Trastuzumab or Herceptin â€“ outside the human body and give it to the patient intravenously if that patient has a cancer, particularly a breast cancer, with too much her2 in it.â€ â€œAntibody flows in the blood, finds the cancer cell, attaches to the her2, and inactivates it so now it canâ€™t act as a molecule, the cell is not getting the stimulus that is giving it information to make it divide so it stops dividing and stops dividing it often goes on to kill itself, called programmed cell death.â€ Herceptin is one example of a treatment that targets a specific molecule in a particular type of cancer. As more of these precisely targeted therapies are developed, it will become increasingly important to understand which molecules play important roles in a particular individualâ€™s cancer. See the Pharmacogenetics section for more information on patient-specific treatment.
female hormone estrogen, breast cancer cells, sloan kettering cancer center, larry norton, breast cancer, cancer cell, receptor blockers, estrogen receptor, target, tamoxifen, receptors, cancers
- ID: 1011
- Source: DNALC.IC
1010. Diagnosis, Targeted therapies
Conventional cancer drugs are cellular poisons that block replication or some other aspect of cell growth. These drugs affect all cells – healthy or cancerous.
16839. Gallery 40: Harold Varmus
Harold Varmus, President and Chief Executive Officer of Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center.
956. Causes, Smoking: Lung cancer epidemic
This section covers the smoking epidemic in the U.S. and the 163,000 Americans that die each year from lung cancer, which is greater than deaths caused by prostate, breast, colon, and pancrease cancers combined.
1018. Pathways, At the cell surface
In this section learn that a signaling pathway begins with the arrival of a chemical signal – such as a hormone or growth factor – at the cell surface.
Genetic testing changed Denise's life.
1016. Diagnosis, Targeted therapies: Targeting activators, Sawyer 4
Professor Charles Sawyer explains that EGF receptor happens to be the driver in at least 10% of lung cancer patients in the U.S.
15408. Chromosome 13: BRCA2 gene for breast cancer susceptibility, Matt Ridley
Matt Ridley talks about chromosome 13, BRCA2 gene for breast cancer susceptibility.
16995. New York Stories: Restriction Enzyme Analysis
New York high school students interview Dr. Scott Lowe of Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center about using restriction enzyme analysis in cancer research, then perform the experiment.
935. Hallmarks, Overview
Cancer is a disease that affects people of all nationalities and age groups and all cancers start with mutations in one cell.
15040. Using DNA microarrays to study cancer, Patrick Brown
Pat Brown talks about using microarrays to discover the differences between cancer cells and healthy cells.