Hallmarks, Promoting mutations
Bruce Stillman, Ph.D., president of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, explains that genomic instability is a characteristic of cancer cells.
A cell carries the entire set of genetic instructions â€“ the genome â€“ that makes an entire organism. The instructions are encoded in DNA as genes and packaged as chromosomes in the nucleus. DNA is not immutable and is subject to damage and mutations. Crucial changes in the genome affect the chance and rate of the development of a cancer cell. Bruce Stillman, Ph.D., Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory: â€œA characteristic of cancer cells is that those cells have changes in the nature of the genes that are compared to the normal cells. These changes can be either mutations, or they can be deletion of whole genes, or they can be the addition of extra copies of genes. This is called genomic instability. The changes in our genes that accumulate in cancer cells can be acquired by a number of mechanisms. One is that during the process of copying the genetic information, mistakes can be made. After the genetic information is copied, it has to be segregated to the two daughter cells. During that segregation process, it is often that the numbers of genes get distributed unevenly to those daughter cells. A third way is that cancer cells have an inability to repair alterations in the DNA.â€ Bruce Stillman, Ph.D. is president and chief executive officer of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. He is interested in understanding the mechanism and control of DNA replication in higher cells. Working in baker's yeast, he has identified DNA sequences and proteins that interact to initiatiate chromosome duplication. â€œYou need to acquire multiple changes in the genes, multiple genes, to get a full-blown cancer estimates to be about 5-7 genes perhaps on average. Those changes accumulate over a period of time. Some of those changes accelerate the rate of accumulation of that. What is interesting is that some of them are inherited ahead of time. So BRCA-1 for instance, you are born with one of the niches already taken out of your belt and then to accumulate the other 4 or 5 changes, you are already on the way. And that is why there's a higher probability of getting cancer.â€
cold spring harbor laboratory, bruce stillman, brca 1, daughter cells, cancer cells, information mistakes, crucial changes, cancer cell, genetic information, extra copies, hallmarks, genetic instability
- ID: 951
- Source: DNALC.IC
952. Hallmarks, Promoting mutations: Stillman
Bruce Stillman, Ph.D., president of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory discusses that you need to acquire multiple changes in genes estimated to be about 5-7 genes perhaps on average, to get a full-blown cancer.
949. Hallmarks, Avoiding detection
Bruce Stillman, Ph.D. is president and chief executive officer of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, explains that there are two adaptive immune responses, and those immune responses adapt to changes in cells in our body whether they be by infection or other.
950. Hallmarks, Avoiding detection: Stillman
Bruce Stillman, Ph.D. is president and chief executive officer of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, discusses an area of immunology called adjuvant therapy, and how it is used to stimulate the body's immune system with agents that activate the immune system.
16888. 2009 Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology: Telomeres
Nobel Prize week kicked-off today with the announcement of the Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Elizabeth Blackburn, Carol Greider, and Jack Szostak will share the award for discovering telomeres and telomerase. Dr. Bruce Stillman, President of Cold Sprin
16713. Gallery 34: Bruce Stillman and Doug Hanahan (R), 1984
1984 picture of Doug Hanahan (R) and Bruce Stillman, current Director of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
1009. Diagnosis, Pharmacogenetics
In this section pharmacogenetics is discussed and how people can have very different responses to the same drug and treatment.
16846. Video 40: Michael Wigler, clip 2
Cancer genes are fundamental for cell survival.
935. Hallmarks, Overview
Cancer is a disease that affects people of all nationalities and age groups and all cancers start with mutations in one cell.
15408. Chromosome 13: BRCA2 gene for breast cancer susceptibility, Matt Ridley
Matt Ridley talks about chromosome 13, BRCA2 gene for breast cancer susceptibility.
16809. Biography 38: Scott William Lowe (1963 - )
Scott Lowe's research has shown how the regulation of the cell cycle affect cancer.