Professor Bruce McEwen describes the blood-brain barrier, which prevents most proteins from accessing the brain. Selective proteins can cross the barrier, instigating processes such as neurogenesis.
The blood-brain barrier is an interesting concept because it originally really was thought to exclude many molecules that we now know are even selectively transported into the brain. In general, cells do not get into the brain, except under some circumstances where immune cells in damage will actually get into the brain. Protein molecules, large ones, generally donâ€™t get into the brain, but smaller proteins, like insulin, actually are selectively transported in the brain. Perhaps one of the most dramatic examples is that circulating insulin-like growth factor, which is a hormone produced by the liver, actually is actively taken up by the brain, and stimulates the neurogenesis that occurs in the dentate gyrus and the hippocampus, caused by voluntary exercise. So here, when we start exercising â€“ go out and run or something â€“ this hormone is actually helping to generate new nerve cells in the hippocampus.
blood, brain, barrier, protein, molecule, size, insulin, growth, factor, immune, cell, neurogenesis, bruce, mcewen
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2212. BDNF - brain-derived neurotrophic factor
Professor Bruce McEwen introduces BDNF, a class of neurotrophic molecules released by excitatory neurotransmission and associated with key process and disorders.
2205. Endocrine system and neuroendocrinology
Professor Bruce McEwen describes the endocrine system, which regulates hormones, the autonomic nervous and immune systems.
830. Blood-Brain Interactions
Unlike any other organ, the brain depends on continuous blood flow. If the circulation to a portion of the brain is interrupted, that area will quickly lose its ability to function.
2216. Dendritic remodeling
Professor Bruce McEwen discusses the remodeling of dendrites, which are affected by BDNF, TPA, cell-adhesion molecules, and a number of other factors.
838. Stem Cell Possibilities
Research continues to show that stem cells could be harnessed for therapeutic purposes.
2206. Endocrine system - functions
Professor Bruce McEwen describes some of the key players in the endocrine system - hypothalamus, pituitary gland, adrenal cortex, sex glands, and hormones.
1018. Pathways, At the cell surface
In this section learn that a signaling pathway begins with the arrival of a chemical signal – such as a hormone or growth factor – at the cell surface.
949. Hallmarks, Avoiding detection
Bruce Stillman, Ph.D. is president and chief executive officer of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, explains that there are two adaptive immune responses, and those immune responses adapt to changes in cells in our body whether they be by infection or other.
848. Exercise-induced Neurogenesis
Evidence in humans that a structured exercise training program increases neurogenesis.
16877. Cell Signals
Journey inside a cell as you follow proteins and learn about cellular interactions. This 3-D animation brings to life the inner workings of a fibroblast cell as it responds to external signals. Created by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory and Interactive Know