Exogenous and Endogenous Depressions?
Professor James Potash discusses the hypothesis that there are two forms of depression - one that results primarily from external factors (exogenous) and a second endogenous form.
For a long time there was this notion that there were two forms of depression, so-called endogenous and exogenous, or sometimes it was referred to endogenous and reactive. Certainly there are patients who seem to have everything going for them, and become depressed completely out of the blue. On the other hand, there are lots of patients who seem to get depressed in response to stressors. There is an awful lot that is not understood about that, but it makes a lot of sense to me that that might well relate to either differing levels or differing kinds of genetic susceptibility that people have.
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An overview of depression-related content on Genes to Cognition Online.
Professor James Potash explains that the HPA (hypothalamic pituitary adrenal) axis is the system that control the stress response. The hormone cortisol is intrinsic to this system.
Professor James Potash describes how the diathesis-stress model can be used to understand interactions between genes and the environment. He refers specifically to bipolar disorder.
Professor Wayne Drevets discusses the ways in which stress can lead to depression. Research into interactions between stress and genes include a mutation in the serotonin transporter region.
Professor Wayne Drevets introduces the diathesis-stress model, which describes the relationship between biology and stress, particularly in relation to mental illness.
Doctor Daniel Pine explains that the environment is particularly important to determining how we understand, treat, and respond to anxiety.
Professor James Potash discusses two hypotheses on how lithium, which has been successfully used to treat bipolar disorder for many years, may affect the brain.
An overview of bipolar disorder-related content on Genes to Cognition Online.
Doctor Daniel Pine introduces the diathesis-stress model for anxiety and depression. The model posits that stress combines with inherited factors to produce disorder.
Professor James Potash discusses studies that show reductions in hippocampal volume in people with depression and abnormalities in cingulate areas in patients with bipolar disorder.