Dog (Canis lupus)
Manâ€™s best friend is a valuable model organism for studying the genetics of complex traits. It is also an excellent model for researching numerous diseases requiring subtle phenotyping.
Manâ€™s best friend is a valuable model organism for studying the genetics of complex traits. It is also an excellent model for researching numerous diseases requiring subtle phenotyping. The dog genome is similar in size to the genomes of humans and other mammals, containing an estimated 2.8 billion DNA base pairs. A comparison of the dog and human genomes could help scientists find the genetic roots of dog behavior and physiology and help to identify genes that cause diseases in both dogs and humans. Canine models have played an important role in advancing biomedical knowledge and techniques. Due to a long history of selective breeding, many breeds of dogs are prone to genetic diseases including cancer and autoimmune disorders that are difficult to study in humans.
dog, Canis lupus, model, system, organism, genetic diseases
- ID: 1713
- Source: DNALC.G2C
Model organisms share with humans many key biochemical and physiological functions that have been conserved (maintained) by evolution.
Mice are small, easy to keep, and complete a generation in only ten weeks. They are also rather closely related to human beings.
The rat is an ideal research model because scientists have a deep understanding of rat physiological mechanisms. There are numerous rat models that mimic human diseases.
Doctor Josh Dubnau explains that model systems are particular species of animals that substitute for humans or other animals. For genetic and historic reasons, the fruit fly is a commonly used model.
Some of the plants, animals, and microorganisms used by researchers as "model" biological systems.
When model organisms cannot provide the information needed to answer a particular research question, biologists can turn to cultured human cells.
Each model organism has its own advantages and disadvantages. Choosing an appropriate model depends on the question being asked. Many laboratories find it useful to perform parallel experiments in two or more model systems to understand different aspects
Model organisms such as yeast, bacteria, the mouse and the fruit fly are used by researchers to study biological systems. The genomes of these organisms have been mapped and sequenced.
There are only 50 human genes that have no homolog in chimps. Differences between the two species are, therefore, due more to changes in gene regulation.