Walther Flemming (1843-1905)
Walther Flemming was born in Sachsenberg, Mecklenburg, now in Germany. He was a military physician during the Franco-Prussian War. Flemming held positions at the University of Prague (1873-76), and at the University of Kiel (1876-1901).
Flemming was one of the first to devote his time to cytology, the study of chromosomes. Cell division had been described as early as 1842 by Carl Nageli, who thought it was an anomalous event. Flemming was the first to detail the chromosomal movements in the process of mitosis. In 1879, Flemming used aniline dyes, a by-product of coal tar, to stain cells of salamander embryos. He was able to visualize the threadlike material as the cells divide. He described the whole process in his book Zell-substanz, Kern und Zelltheilung (Cell-Substance, Nucleus, and Cell-Division), which was published in 1882. Much of what we know today about mitosis originated with Flemming's observations. He saw that chromosomes were "doubled" when they appeared in prophase, and "solved" the problem of chromosomal partitioning between mother and daughter cells. This was significant for later work in meiosis and the chromosomal theory of inheritance.
In 1882, Walther Flemming published the definitive study of the cellular process of mitosis.
walther flemming, chromosomal theory of inheritance, franco prussian war, aniline dyes, process of mitosis, theory of inheritance, meiosis, chromosomes,cytology, cell division
- ID: 16235
- Source: DNALC.DNAFTB
16229. All cells arise from pre-existing cells.
DNAFTB Animation 7: Walther Flemming explains the phases of mitosis.
16248. Sex cells have one set of chromosomes; body cells have two.
DNAFTB Problem 8: Take a look at human chromosomes.
16247. Biography 8: Walter Stanborough Sutton (1877-1916)
Walter Sutton described the process of meiosis. He also showed that although chromosomes may look similar, they have specific hereditary qualities.
16228. Concept 7: All cells arise from pre-existing cells.
An overview of the discovery of cell division, mitosis.
16238. Sex cells have one set of chromosomes; body cells have two.
DNAFTB Animation 8: Theodor Boveri presents chromosomes' role in development.
16249. Specialized chromosomes determine sex.
DNAFTB Concept 9: Study of meiosis revealed the chromosomal basis of sex.
16146. Gallery 1: Thomas Hunt Morgan and daughters, 1920
Thomas Hunt Morgan (1933 winner of the Nobel Prize for Medicine for his work on the chromosomal theory of inheritance), with his daughters, Isabel (left) and Lilian (right), 1920.
16246. Biography 8: Theodor Boveri (1862-1915)
Theodor Boveri described the process of meiosis. He also showed that although chromosomes may look similar, they have specific hereditary qualities.
16250. Specialized chromosomes determine sex.
DNAFTB Animation 9: Nettie Stevens and Edmund Wilson explain how biological sex is determined by special chromosomes.
16237. Concept 8: Sex cells have one set of chromosomes; body cells have two.
Offspring arise from the union of specialized sex cells â a female egg and a male sperm.