DNA ligase joining two lengths of DNA at their sticky ends
Once scientists could cut DNA, they still needed a way to paste DNA strands together at will. Arthur Kornberg's identification of an enzyme he called ligase allowed scientists to paste the ends of DNA molecules together. This still image shows the alignment of matching sticky ends (in pink and red) and the DNA ligase (in green) that remakes the sugar-phosphate bonds that form the backbone of DNA.
This still image shows the alignment of matching sticky ends (in pink and red) and the DNA ligase (in green) that remakes the sugar-phosphate bonds that form the backbone of DNA.
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- ID: 15541
- Source: DNALC.DNAi
15487. DNA ligation, 3D animation with no audio
DNA with "sticky ends" can be rejoined and ligated together.
15488. Restriction digest, 3D animation with no audio
Restriction enzymes can bind to and cut DNA at specific sites.
15878. DNA synthesis
Arthur Kornberg isolated the first enzyme, DNA polymerase I, which can make new DNA strands.
16705. Animation 34: Genes can be moved between species.
Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer transform bacteria with a recombinant plasmid, and Doug Hanahan studies induced transformation.
16441. Problem 19: The DNA molecule is shaped like a twisted ladder.
Explore DNA's structure.
15476. Mechanism of Recombination, 3D animation with with basic narration
Genetic engineering: inserting new DNA into a plasmid vector.
16529. Animation 24: The RNA message is sometimes edited.
Rich Roberts and Phil Sharp explain restriction enzymes, electrophoresis, and split genes.
16515. Animation 23: A gene is a discrete sequence of DNA nucleotides.
Fred Sanger outlines DNA sequencing.
15917. Cutting and pasting DNA
The discovery of enzymes that could cut and paste DNA made genetic engineering possible.
16026. Arthur Kornberg, 1957
A half DNA ladder is a template for copying the whole.