The first witness at Buck vs. Bell trial, Paul Lombardo
Interviewee: Paul Lombardo. Arthur Estabrook, a psychologist for the Eugenics Record office, testified that Carrie, her daughter Vivian, and her mother Emma were all feeblminded. (DNAi Location: Chronicle > Trial of Carrie Buck > Trial > Arthur Estabrook's testimony)
The first witness, Arthur Estabrook, was a man who traveled here from fieldwork in Kentucky and Indiana, arriving only a couple days before the trial, to do an evaluation of Carrie Buck and her daughter, and conclude that, in his opinion, both of those people were feebleminded and likely to be morally degenerate. He also gave the opinion that Carrie's mother Emma was somehow defective.
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The day before the Virginia case, Arthur Estabrook photographed Carrie and Emma on a bench located at this spot in the Virginia Colony.
Paul Lombardo talks about the case conluded that Carrie, Emma, and Vivian represented three generations of imbeciles, which justified Carrie's sterilization.
Paul Lombardo talks about Arthur Estabrook apparently tested Vivian's mental ability by attempting to catch her attention with a coin.
Paul Lombardo discusses Carrie and Emma Buck's state of mind prior to the Buck vs. Bell trial.
Carrie Buck's daughter Vivian was found to be feebleminded at the age of about seven months.
Carrie's daughter, Vivian Dobbs, was found to be feebleminded.
Paul Lombardo talks about the only photograph of Carrie Buck with her mother Emma, taken the day before she would stand trial before the collective onslaught of the American eugenics movement.
Carrie and Emma Buck on the day before the Buck vs. Bell trial in 1924.
A photo of Carrie and her mother Emma was taken the day before the Virginia trial.
Paul Lombardo talks about although she tried several times, Carrie was never able to bring her mother Emma home from the Virginia Colony.