Making many DNA copies, Kary Mullis
Interviewee: Kary Mullis. Kary Mullis talks about his discovery of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a process that allows chemists to produce many copies of a specific fragment of DNA. (DNAi Location: Manipulation > Techniques > Amplifying > Making many DNA copies)
This procedure will copy the DNA that is between the place where these two little short pieces of it are, they're stuck to it, because their sequence is right to do that. And if you run this process once you'll get an extra copy of the thing that you were trying to figure out what it was in the first place, so you have twice as much. And if you do that again there's nothing that stops me from doing it again, I realized, that was the, I said my God, if I did that again I'd have four times as much, and if I did it again I'd have eight times as much, and I could keep doing that 'til thirty times would give me a billion times as much of this particular little sequence that contains the information that I'm interested in, to find out whether or not this fetus is going to have this particular disease, or all kinds of other DNA-related questions.
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DNA polymerase (blue) makes many copies of DNA (red) in a cycle of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
Kary Mullis explains how the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was named.
Image of Kary Mullis. In 1985, Kary Mullis invented the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a method of amplifying or producing many copies of a specific piece of DNA. The revelation came to this eccentric character on a drive in northern California.
The cycles of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
Kary Mullis speaks about the process of find a specific fragment of DNA amongst many pieces in a complex mixture.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) enables researchers to produce millions of copies of a specific DNA sequence in approximately two hours. This automated process bypasses the need to use bacteria for amplifying DNA.
KARY MULLIS (1944- )
The DNA sequencing method developed by Fred Sanger forms the basis of automated "cycle" sequencing reactions today.
James Watson describes sequencing the human genome using markers and BACs, and Craig Venter explains using cDNA libraries, ESTs, and shotgun sequencing.
Fred Sanger outlines DNA sequencing.