Effects of automation on sequencing
Interviewee: Michael Hunkapiller. Mike Hunkapiller, a developer of automated sequencing, speaks about the effect of automation on sequencing in the late 1990s. (DNAi Location: Genome > The project > Players > Technology > A thousand-fold increase in five years)
The first free-living organism was sequenced at The Institute for Genomic Research in 1995, it was a few million base pairs long. It took them about six to nine months to collect the data and, and interpret it and, and get a close sequence. If you jump forward a little bit to three years later, the first complex organism was done, Drosophila, in about the same amount of time, it was a hundred and twenty million base pairs long. You jump forward another year and you have the human sequence done at three billion base pairs, also in about nine months. And so just over the sort of mid-life evolution of the, of the automated technology, you had far more than a thousand-fold increase in throughput.
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The DNA sequencing method developed by Fred Sanger forms the basis of automated "cycle" sequencing reactions today.
Shane Yeager, from the Whitehead Institute Center for Genome Research, explains the processes of storing and preparing DNA for sequencing.
Our genome is a set of long DNA molecules containing tens of thousands of genes.
James Watson describes sequencing the human genome using markers and BACs, and Craig Venter explains using cDNA libraries, ESTs, and shotgun sequencing.
Jim Kent talks about dealing with sequencing data.
Image of outputs from DNA sequencing: automated (top) and manual (bottom).
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) enables researchers to produce millions of copies of a specific DNA sequence in approximately two hours. This automated process bypasses the need to use bacteria for amplifying DNA.
Ari Patrinos talks about private and public efforts to sequence the human genome.
15477. The public Human Genome Project: mapping the genome, sequencing, and reassembly. 3D animation.
The public Human Genome Project: mapping the genome, sequencing, and reassembly.
James Watson talks about the Human Genome Project and government funding.