Disentangling Encoding and Retrieval
Doctor Josh Dubnau explains that memories may be present (encoded) but not accessible (retrievable). Scientists have devised a number of experiments for teasing apart encoding from retrieval.
There is an interesting distinction to be drawn between the presence of a memory and the ability to access that memory. To make an analogy, if I ask you to remember your phone number, you can immediately rattle off your phone number; that memory is present in your brain and you have no trouble retrieving it. If I ask you to remember the phone number of a friend that you havenâ€™t called in 25 years, you might remember that and you might not. Perhaps you donâ€™t remember that, and then the next day, driving your car, you think "I remember that personâ€™s phone number" and it comes back to you. That shows that that memory was present in your brain, but you had a retrieval difficulty and you didnâ€™t access it. This is a very difficult thing for experimentalists to disentangle when studying memory in animals, because if you do an experimental manipulation, and it causes the animal to be unable to behave in a way that tells you that it remembers something, you donâ€™t know if youâ€™ve actually erased the memory or prevented its retrieval. The only way we can disentangle these issues is to do manipulations that are reversible. So if you do an anatomical lesion experiment, where you surgically remove a chunk of brain from a rat, and then the animal canâ€™t remember something youâ€™ve taught it in the past, you donâ€™t know whether youâ€™ve blocked retrieval or erased the memory. But if you had a way to put that chunk of tissue back in exactly the way it was, and then the memory comes back, you would say either that the memory was in the chunk that you took in and out which it could be, or that the disruption you did affected the animal's ability to retrieve the memory. In fruit flies, because we have a long rich history of genetics, we have the ability to genetically do that experiment. We can target a particular gene switch to a small number of neurons, and then by raising or lowering the temperature of the animal we can silence those neurons at the higher temperature or allow them to function normally at the lower temperature. When we do that we can ask first whether that population of neurons is involved in some way in a particular memory, and we can disentangle whether those neurons are involved in retrieving the memory or storing it because if we take those neurons offline and the animal canâ€™t access the memory, but we restore them again a moment later and then the animal can remember, we infer that those neurons are involved in the retrieval of the memory.
memory, encoding, acquisition, retrieval, josh, dubnau, cshl
Doctor Josh Dubnau explains that memories seem to be formed in different stages that evolve over time. These include acquisition, short-term storage, and consolidation.
Doctor Josh Dubnau describes how he and his colleagues at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory devised an experiment that dissociated the encoding and retrieval of memory in fruit flies.
Professor Howard Eichenbaum explains that encoding and retrieving memories are distinct neurobiological processes.
Doctor Josh Dubnau explains that genes are responsible for memory in that they contain the raw instructions for memory. Experience determines how these instructions are assembled.
Doctor Josh Dubnau explains that some genes are preferentially active in one part of the brain or body, while other genes are particular active in another location.
Doctor Josh Dubnau explains that model systems are particular species of animals that substitute for humans or other animals. For genetic and historic reasons, the fruit fly is a commonly used model.
Doctor Josh Dubnau explains that the cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling network can receive signals from outside the cell and use the signal to alter the function of the cell.
Doctor Josh Dubnau explains that memories result from rapid changes in the connections in a huge network of neurons. We do not know, however, the precise mechanism driving these changes.
Doctor Josh Dubnau describes learning as a change in an animal’s behavior in response to previous stimuli or experience.
Doctor Josh Dubnau explains that the function of signaling networks is to receive signals from outside the cell, and transmit that information into the cell, in some cases to the nucleus.