Doctor Josh Dubnau explains that the function of signaling networks is to receive signals from outside the cell, and transmit that information into the cell, in some cases to the nucleus.
Cells of all types, (and neurons are just very complicated cells) cells of all types, both in unicellular organisms and multicellular organisms, are constantly receiving signals about what is going on in the outside world, and then changing aspects of their function; their metabolism, their growth, whether or not to divide, in the case of neurons whether or not to release transmitter, whether or not to grow new connections with other neurons. Signaling networks are jargon for the cellular mechanisms that individual neurons (or any cell type) uses to receive signals of whatâ€™s happening outside the cell, and transmit that into the cell and in some cases to the nucleus in order to control gene expression.
signaling, network, cell, unicellular, multicellular, nucleus, neurons, gene, expression, josh, dubnau, cshl
Doctor Josh Dubnau explains that the cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling network can receive signals from outside the cell and use the signal to alter the function of the cell.
Doctor Josh Dubnau explains that some genes are preferentially active in one part of the brain or body, while other genes are particular active in another location.
Doctor Josh Dubnau explains that the genes active in different neurons can make them excitatory (e.g. glutamate) or inhibitory (e.g. GABA). These neurotransmitters are critical to learning.
Like all brains, insect brains have different structures that accomplish specific tasks. Dr. Josh Dubnau introduces a technique for examining gene expression in the brains of fruit flies.
Doctor Josh Dubnau explains that memories result from rapid changes in the connections in a huge network of neurons. We do not know, however, the precise mechanism driving these changes.
Doctor Josh Dubnau explains that genes are responsible for memory in that they contain the raw instructions for memory. Experience determines how these instructions are assembled.
Doctor Josh Dubnau describes how he and his colleagues at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory devised an experiment that dissociated the encoding and retrieval of memory in fruit flies.
Dr. Nicole King and Dr. Seth Grant join Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory's David Micklos to discuss the evolution of complex, multicellular animals. Remarkably, the molecules that have driven brain evolution, are the same molecules found in simple unicellula
Doctor Josh Dubnau explains that model systems are particular species of animals that substitute for humans or other animals. For genetic and historic reasons, the fruit fly is a commonly used model.
Doctor Josh Dubnau explains that memories may be present (encoded) but not accessible (retrievable). Scientists have devised a number of experiments for teasing apart encoding from retrieval.