Discovery of the Aplysia
Professor Eric Kandel describes how he came to study the model organism Aplysia, which would later earn him a Nobel prize.
I came across Aplysia because I had worked on the hippocampus. I was the first person to do intercellular recording from hippocampal neurons because I had read Brenda Milner's paper, this was 1957. I thought that if I just recorded from the hippocampus memory would speak to me, and I realized the hippocampus was very complicated, and it would take a long while to study how information related to learning comes into the hippocampus and how it is modified by it. So, I thought it would be best to begin, since we knew nothing about learning and memory, with a simpler organism. So, I started going to seminars where different simple preparations were being discussed. And I came across Aplysia, and fell in love with it, and have stayed faithful to it, as I tend to be, for the rest of my career.
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Professor Eric Kandel discusses the attributes that make Aplysia, a type of sea slug, an ideal model for studying learning and memory.
Professor Eric Kandel discusses the importance of attention in forming declarative/explicit memories. These memories involve the hippocampus.
Professor Eric Kandel discusses the importance of the hippocampus in the formation of long-term memories.
Learning and memory are two intimately linked cognitive processes that stem from interactions with the environment (experience).
New neurons in the hippocampus may remember the timing of events.
Professor Eric Kandel explains that the CA1 region of the hippocampus is important for representing and remembering spaces.
Professor Eric Kandel explains how that as you view this interview - the structure of your brain is changing.
Professor Eric Kandel explains that events in the environment can have profound effects on gene expression and brain anatomy.
Researchers from the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute demonstrate how action potentials are recorded from brain slices, and how long-term potentiation is measured.
Professor Eric Kandel discusses changes in synapse structure during long-term memory. Research indicates these changes are synapse-specific and not neuron-wide.