Causes, Diet: Cause
Meat cooked at high temperatures can produce chemicals that are damaging to cells and DNA.
Cause Meat cooked at high temperatures can produce chemicals that are damaging to cells and DNA. The body has a whole range of enzymes that react with these chemicals to render them inert for eventual disposal. One such enzyme seems to be inactivated in men with prostate cancer. Click the forward arrow or the numbers below to see how the inactivation of this enzyme can lead to prostate cancer development. William Nelson, M.D., Ph.D., Johns Hopkins School of Medicine: â€œProstate cancer has become a major scourge for men as they age in the developed world. About 1 in 5, or 1 in 6 men are likely to be diagnosed with prostate cancer in their lifetime.â€ â€œThe gene that appears to be most commonly inactivated in prostate cells as they become cancerous is a gene that encodes a glutathione-S-transferase enzyme.â€ â€œThis is an enzyme that can take a chemical scavenger molecule, glutathione, which is typically present at millimolar concentrations inside cells, it can take that scavenger and conjugate it to threatening reactive chemical species whether they be oxidants, reactive oxygen species if you will, or carcinogen-like things.â€ William Nelson, M.D., Ph.D. is a researcher at the Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins. HIs research focuses on the molecular causes involved in the development of prostate cancer. This has led to the discoveries that inflammation, diet, and gene "silencing" have roles in prostate cancer development. â€œGSTP1 doesn't seem to be a gene in prostate cancer at least that's controlling growth, invasion, or metastasis or something that you might imagine a classical tumor suppressor gene to do. Rather, it seems to be a gene that controls the vulnerability to further gene damage by reactive oxygen species and carcinogens. So in that sense it acts more like a repair enzyme that is protecting the genome against damage.â€ â€œSo the GSTP1 gene is inactivated via a mechanism that appears to be very common in most human cancers. It has a gene promoter, a transcriptional promoter region that is a classic CpG island.â€ â€œWhat a CpG island is, is that the nucleotide sequence C followed by G is self-complementary and it's relatively underrepresented overall in the human genome. But often when it's found, it's found clustered into regions of about a kilobase in length.â€ â€œWhen it's clustered in these regions, in most normal genes, the C does not carry a 5-methyl modification.â€ â€œWe now know that it's also a common mechanism by which genes are turned off in cancer cells. So they carry this region methylated. And GSCP1 is a very classic example of this actually. Its CpG island is quite densely occupied by CpG dinucleotides, and basically in almost every single case both copies of the gene are present and both are methylated.â€
sidney kimmel comprehensive cancer center, glutathione s transferase, tumor suppressor gene, gene damage, cancer development, oxygen species, eventual disposal, high temperatures, chemical species
- ID: 982
- Source: DNALC.IC
Professor Nelson explains that GSTP1 doesn't seem to be a gene in prostate cancer at least that's controlling growth, invasion, or metastasis.
In order to identify cancer causes and prevention strategies, researchers conduct a cohort of studies where they collect information from large groups of individuals over many years.
Professor Nelson explains that chlorophyll is a remarkable energy scavenger and that there is some hint that if you consume chlorophyll you can intercept chemical species, that damage proteins, DNA, and RNA.
Professor Nelson explains that there's something about diets of people who get prostate cancer that are a little different from the diets of people that don't.
In addition to enzymes produced by the body, certain components in food can also react with damaging chemicals, and an increased consumption of these foods may lower a person’s risk of cancer development.
Professor Nelson discusses how ecological epidemiology evidence is utilized to determine cancer susceptibility.
Professor Nelson explains that the prostate is actually a male sex accessory gland that contributes about a third of the secretions to the ejaculate for sexual reproduction.
In this section learn how diet can contribute and or be linked to the development of prostate cancer.
This section identifies that a cancer gene alters the normal functioning of a protein, and there are three major categories of cancer genes.
All cancers are genetic, in that cancers are caused by genetic mutations in genes that lead to malignancy.