An overview of thinking-related content on Genes to Cognition Online.
Thinking is a â€œhigherâ€ cognitive process that involves planning, reasoning, and decision-making. A number of cognitive disorders have been associated with impaired thinking, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and Alzheimerâ€™s disease. Thinking is also aligned with intelligence, which (although notoriously difficult to measure) seems to be a highly heritable construct. The prefrontal cortex is the region in the brain most strongly associated with these higher cognitive processes and is also involved in attention, inhibition, and social skills. Environmental stimulation may be important to fostering these processes and animals exposed to novel experiences achieve better cognitive development. Similarly, animals that receive good maternal care also show improved cognitive performance. GENES The Chromosome Map of Processes and Disorders catalogs some of the (many) genes associated with intelligence. These are included in the place of genes for thinking, which is a notoriously difficult process to investigate from a molecular perspective. BIOCHEMICALS Virtual Neuron allows users to explore some of the principle biochemicals in the brain, including GABA, glutamate, dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine. These biochemicals are by no means specific to thinking, but are important elements to understanding thinking across different levels of analysis. CELLS Plasticity is an important element of cognition. The word â€œplasticityâ€ derives from plasticâ€™s ability to bend and change. Synapses have a similar property and change their shape or their function over periods of time from a few seconds to a lifetime. Many researchers believe plasticity is a determinant of intelligence. BRAIN The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the region in the brain most strongly linked to thinking, which is a primary executive process. Executive processes are that set of control processes that serve to optimize performance in complex tasks. It is also involved in personality and emotion by contributing to the assessment and control of appropriate social behaviors. Use the G2C 3-D Brain to explore the PFC and related brain areas. COGNITION Thinking incorporates a slew of cognitive processes, including Decision-Making, Reasoning, and Intelligence, all of which are the subject of Dana Review articles on G2C Online. In Defining Cognition, Professor Marc Hauser argues that it is not necessary to make a distinction between cognition and emotion, which may be considered a cognitive process in some respects. ENVIRONMENT In Early-Life Experience â€“ Stimulation Professor Bruce McEwen discusses some of the environmental factors than can affect thinking. Exposure to novelty (a measure of environmental stimulation) is associated with cognitive development, better social development, and skill-learning. In addition maternal care is very important for determining long-term outcome. This provides good evidence that quality maternal care, consistent parental care, and a consistent home environment, does have long-lasting effects.
thinking, cognition, intellignece, iq, prefrontal, cortex, pfc, executive, process, gene, biochemical, cell, neuron, brain, cogntion, behavior, environment
- ID: 2251
- Source: DNALC.G2C
An overview of attention-related content on Genes to Cognition Online.
A overview of perception-related content on Genes to Cognition Online.
Professor Trevor Robbins explains that the prefrontal cortex is involved in executive functions such as planning and decision-making.
The prefrontal cortex is thought to play an important role in 'higher' brain functions. It is a critical part of the executive system, which refers to planning, reasoning, and judgment.
An overview of schizophrenia-related content on Genes to Cognition Online.
Professor James Watson notes that a feature of the schizophrenic brain is a smaller prefrontal cortex. This may relate to difficulties in problem-solving.
An overview of autism-related content on Genes to Cognition Online.
An overview of ADHD-related content on Genes to Cognition Online.
Professor David Lewis discusses how the diversity of symptoms in schizophrenia is reflected in the diversity of genetic and neural causes of the disorder.
An overview of bipolar disorder-related content on Genes to Cognition Online.