Duration: 1 minutes, 5 seconds
DNA is under constant attack from reactive chemicals and natural background radiation. Free radicals are the by products of normal metabolism in human cells. Seen here as bright particles they sometimes react with DNA and cause chemical changes. Radiation can also affect DNA. For example ultra violet light from the sun can cause harmful chemical changes in the DNA of skin. These changes can lead to kinks in the DNA that prevent genes from being correctly read or deletions that alter the type of proteins produced Thanks to constant biochemical repair work most mutations are corrected before that have any effect. But in rare cases mutations can accumulate and this can give rise to diseases such as cancer.
DNA Damage, mutation, cancer, radiation, 3d animation
Mutations and the molecular clock.
Some mutations are starting points for evolution, others are responsible for disease.
Professor Kensler explains that Aflatoxin is a lipid soluble molecule that is rapidly absorbed and it goes first to the liver where there are enzymes that will chemically biotransform it into a very reactive chemical.
Compounds inherent in berries, pomegranate juice, wine and green tea have all been cited as having the potential to help people live longer and better.
Learn how the cause of Xeroderma pigmentosum is caused by a defect in a DNA repair system.
Professor Nelson explains that chlorophyll is a remarkable energy scavenger and that there is some hint that if you consume chlorophyll you can intercept chemical species, that damage proteins, DNA, and RNA.
Cancer is a disease that affects people of all nationalities and age groups and all cancers start with mutations in one cell.
Meat cooked at high temperatures can produce chemicals that are damaging to cells and DNA.
Aflatoxin, a byproduct of molds, is a potent cancer-causing agent. Long-term exposure to aflatoxin has been linked to increased incidence of liver cancer.
This series of animations shows how mutations in the p53 gene are found in 70% of lung tumors, the highest rate for any cancer.