Thomas Cech and Sidney Altman discovered that RNA can have enzymatic activities. For this discovery, they shared the 1989 Nobel Prize for Chemistry.
RNA was the first genetic molecule.
Professor Vogelstein, explains that cancer is in essence a genetic disease. But it's really quite different than all the other genetic diseases that people usually think of when they think about a genetic disease.
Professor Vogelstein explains that APC is expressed in all cells, and that we don't know why it only causes cancers when mutated in the colon and in a few other places.
Professor Charles Sawyer explains that Gleevec is a pill taken once a day and works remarkably well in all phases of CML.
Professor Charles Sawyer explains that CML stands for chronic myeloid leukemia, which is a blood cancer and it is different from many cancers because it starts very slowly and patients when they're first diagnosed don't have many symptoms.
Professor Vogelstein explains that colon cancers provide a good example of a type of tumor in which the genetic steps leading from the normal colon epethelial cell to a cancer, are reasonably well known.
Professor Vogelstein explains that the only difference between a benign tumor and a malignant tumor is not the size, it's the ability of the malignant tumor to invade, and get through the tissues.
This section identifies that a cancer gene alters the normal functioning of a protein, and there are three major categories of cancer genes.
Herb Boyer and Stan Cohen "invented" recombinant DNA technology.