Human migrations out of Africa, Stephen Oppenheimer
Interviewee: Stephen Oppenheimer.
Essentially there are only two or perhaps three routes out of Africa. One is across the mouth of the Red Sea, the other is across the Suez, and the third is across the Straits of Gibraltar. And really there's very little evidence that the original modern human migration went across Gibraltar, although other migrations certainly did. And so it's a choice of two, between the mouth of the Red Sea and the Suez. And to determine which route was taken, we really have to look at the descendant lineages, or descendant haplogroups or genetic lines, which are on the other side of that gate. And if we look in southern Arabia in India, we find all of the early branches of M and N [two human lineages] in great profusion. If on the other hand, we look in the Near East, all we find is N. And not only do we only find N, we only find highly derived groups of N, which are characteristic of Europeans and Near Easterners. And so the diversity of lineages that are found outside the gate, northern gate, are very much less than the diversity of lineages which are found to the east of the southern gate.
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Stephen Oppenheimer talks about migrations to Europe and Australia.
Geneticist Stephen Oppenheimer talks about the climatic and physical obstacles faced by humans migrating out of Africa.
Geneticist Stephen Oppenheimer talks about the mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome lineages of our ancestors.
Geneticist Stephen Oppenheimer talks about the climatic conditions that would have allowed modern humans to colonize Europe.
Mitochondrial DNA pioneer Douglas Wallace explains the movement of different lineages of humans from Africa into Europe and Asia.
Mitochondrial DNA pioneer Douglas Wallace speaks about the movement of different populations out of Africa.
Geneticist Mark Stoneking, co-author of an early mitochondrial DNA paper, talks about the competing theories of human origins.
Author Steve Olson talks about the stable and isolated history of the San people of Southern Africa, who are sometimes known as "Bushmen."
Mitochondrial DNA pioneer Douglas Wallace speaks about a possible migration of people from Europe to the Americas, 15,000 years ago.
Mitochondrial DNA pioneer Douglas Wallace talks about the migrations of people from Asia into the Americas.